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[#] Sun Apr 06 2008 06:02:57 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: First Modern Olympic Games

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April 6: General Interest
1896 : First modern Olympic Games

On April 6, 1896, the Olympic Games, a long-lost tradition of ancient
Greece, are reborn in Athens 1,500 years after being banned by Roman
Emperor Theodosius I. At the opening of the Athens Games, King
Georgios I of Greece and a crowd of 60,000 spectators welcomed
athletes from 13 nations to the international competition.

The first recorded Olympic Games were held at Olympia in the Greek
city-state of Elis in 776 B.C., but it is generally accepted that the
Olympics were at least 500 years old at that time. The ancient
Olympics, held every four years, occurred during a religious festival
honoring the Greek god Zeus. In the eighth century B.C., contestants
came from a dozen or more Greek cities, and by the fifth century B.C.
from as many as 100 cities from throughout the Greek empire.
Initially, Olympic competition was limited to foot races, but later a
number of other events were added, including wrestling, boxing, horse
and chariot racing, and military competitions. The pentathlon,
introduced in 708 B.C., consisted of a foot race, the long jump,
discus and javelin throws, and wrestling. With the rise of Rome, the
Olympics declined, and in 393 A.D. the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, a
Christian, abolished the Games as part of his efforts to suppress
paganism in the Roman Empire.

With the Renaissance, Europe began a long fascination with ancient
Greek culture, and in the 18th and 19th centuries some nations staged
informal sporting and folkloric festivals bearing the name "Olympic
Games." However, it was not until 1892 that a young French baron,
Pierre de Coubertin, seriously proposed reviving the Olympics as a
major international competition that would occur every four years. At
a conference on international sport in Paris in June 1894, Coubertin
again raised the idea, and the 79 delegates from nine countries
unanimously approved his proposal. The International Olympic Committee
(IOC) was formed, and the first Games were planned for 1896 in Athens,
the capital of Greece.

In Athens, 280 participants from 13 nations competed in 43 events,
covering track-and-field, swimming, gymnastics, cycling, wrestling,
weightlifting, fencing, shooting, and tennis. All the competitors were
men, and a few of the entrants were tourists who stumbled upon the
Games and were allowed to sign up. The track-and-field events were
held at the Panathenaic Stadium, which was originally built in 330
B.C. and restored for the 1896 Games. Americans won nine out of 12 of
these events. The 1896 Olympics also featured the first marathon
competition, which followed the 25-mile route run by a Greek soldier
who brought news of a victory over the Persians from Marathon to
Athens in 490 B.C. In 1924, the marathon was standardized at 26 miles
and 385 yards. Appropriately, a Greek, Spyridon Louis, won the first
marathon at the 1896 Athens Games.

Pierre de Coubertin became IOC president in 1896 and guided the
Olympic Games through its difficult early years, when it lacked much
popular support and was overshadowed by world's fairs. In 1924, the
first truly successful Olympic Games were held in Paris, involving
more than 3,000 athletes, including more than 100 women, from 44
nations. The first Winter Olympic Games were also held that year. In
1925, Coubertin retired. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as
the foremost international sports competition. At the 2000 Summer
Olympics in Sydney, more than 10,000 athletes from 200 countries
competed, including nearly 4,000 women. In 2004, the Summer Olympics
returned to Athens, with more than 11,000 athletes competing from 202
countries. In a proud moment for Greeks and an exciting one for
spectators, the shotput competition was held at the site of the
classical Games in Olympia.

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General Interest
1896 : First modern Olympic Games
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=6859
1830 : Mormon Church established
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4896
1909 : Peary's expedition reaches North Pole?
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4897
1917 : America enters World War I
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4898

American Revolution
1776 : Congress opens all U.S. ports to international trade
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=454

Automotive
1898 : Winton goes international
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7357
1934 : Ford introduces whitewalls
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7358

Civil War
1862 : Battle of Shiloh begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2161
1865 : Battle of Sayler's Creek
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2162

Cold War
1990 : U.S. and Soviet negotiators make progress
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2629

Crime
1970 : Sam Sheppard dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=964

Disaster
1950 : Train falls off bridge in Brazil
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=395

Entertainment
1930 : Will Rogers' radio show premieres
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3145
1931 : First afternoon radio serial for kids
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3146
1957 : Perry Como tops the charts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3147

Literary
1895 : Oscar Wilde arrested
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3931

Old West
1832 : Black Hawk War begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4506

Presidential
1841 : Tyler is inaugurated as 10th president
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=487

Sports
1896 : First modern Olympics is held
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57526

Vietnam War
1965 : U.S. ground combat troops to take offensive measures
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1770
1972 : U.S. forces respond to North Vietnamese offensive
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1769

Wall Street
1808 : John Jacob Astor incorporates
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5813

World War I
1917 : U.S. enters World War I
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=425

World War II
1941 : Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6406

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[#] Mon Apr 07 2008 06:02:37 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Civil war erupts in Rwanda

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April 7: General Interest
1994 : Civil war erupts in Rwanda

On this day in 1994, Rwandan armed forces kill 10 Belgian peacekeeping
officers in a successful effort to discourage international
intervention in the genocide that had begun only hours earlier. In
approximately three months, the Hutu extremists who controlled Rwanda
brutally murdered an estimated 500,000 to 1 million innocent civilian
Tutsis and moderate Hutus in the worst episode of ethnic genocide
since World War II.

The immediate roots of the 1994 genocide dated back to the early
1990s, when President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, began using
anti-Tutsi rhetoric to consolidate his power among the Hutus.
Beginning in October 1990, there were several massacres of hundreds of
Tutsis. Although the two ethnic groups were very similar, sharing the
same language and culture for centuries, the law required registration
based on ethnicity. The government and army began to assemble the
Interahamwe (meaning "those who attack together") and prepared for the
elimination of the Tutsis by arming Hutus with guns and machetes. In
January 1994, the United Nations forces in Rwanda warned that larger
massacres were imminent.

On April 6, 1994, President Habyarimana was killed when his plane was
shot down. It is not known if the attack was carried out by the
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a Tutsi military organization stationed
outside the country at the time, or by Hutu extremists trying to
instigate a mass killing. In any event, Hutu extremists in the
military, led by Colonel Theoneste Bagosora, immediately went into
action, murdering Tutsis and moderate Hutus within hours of the crash.

The Belgian peacekeepers were killed the next day, a key factor in the
withdrawal of U.N. forces from Rwanda. Soon afterward, the radio
stations in Rwanda were broadcasting appeals to the Hutu majority to
kill all Tutsis in the country. The army and the national police
directed the slaughter, sometimes threatening Hutu civilians when
persuasion didn't work. Thousands of innocent people were hacked to
death with machetes by their neighbors. Despite the horrific crimes,
the international community, including the United States, hesitated to
take any action. They wrongly ascribed the genocide to chaos amid
tribal war. President Bill Clinton later called America's failure to
do anything to stop the genocide "the biggest regret" of his
administration.

It was left to the RPF, led by Paul Kagame, to begin an ultimately
successful military campaign for control of Rwanda. By the summer, the
RPF had defeated the Hutu forces and driven them out of the country
and into several neighboring nations. However, by that time, an
estimated 75 percent of the Tutsis living in Rwanda had been murdered.

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General Interest
1994 : Civil war erupts in Rwanda
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=4900
1953 : Hammarskjold elected U.N. head
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4899
1963 : Tito is made president for life
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6860

American Revolution
1776 : U.S. Navy captures first British warship
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=455

Automotive
1922 : Haugdahl races at Daytona
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7359
1968 : Grand Prix legend dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7360

Civil War
1862 : Battle of Shiloh concludes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2163

Cold War
1954 : Eisenhower gives famous "domino theory" speech
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2630

Crime
1994 : The Rwandan genocide
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=965

Disaster
1990 : Twin ferry accidents on opposite ends of world
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=396

Entertainment
1891 : P.T. Barnum dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3148
1927 : First telecast of sound and image
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3149
1961 : Marian Jordan dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3150

Literary
1770 : William Wordsworth is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3932

Old West
1805 : Lewis and Clark depart Fort Mandan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4481

Presidential
1961 : JFK lobbies Congress to help save historic sites in Egypt
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=488

Sports
1873 : John McGraw, second all-time winningest baseball manager, is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57527

Vietnam War
1975 : North Vietnamese forces begin preparations for final offensive
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1777

Wall Street
1934 : Congress tires to aid farmers
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5814

World War I
1918 : Winston Churchill urges talks with Russia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=426

World War II
1939 : Italy invades Albania
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6407
1945 : Japanese battleship Yamato is sunk by Allied forces
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6408

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[#] Tue Apr 08 2008 06:01:58 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Aaron sets new home run record

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April 8: General Interest
1974 : Aaron sets new home run record

On this day in 1974, Hank Aaron of the Atlanta Braves hits his 715th
career home run, breaking Babe Ruth's legendary record of 714 homers.
A crowd of 53,775 people, the largest in the history of Atlanta-Fulton
County Stadium, was with Aaron that night to cheer when he hit a 4th
inning pitch off the Los Angeles Dodgers' Al Downing. However, as
Aaron was an African American who had received death threats and
racist hate mail during his pursuit of one of baseball's most
distinguished records, the achievement was bittersweet.
Henry Louis Aaron Jr., born in Mobile, Alabama, on February 5, 1934,
made his Major League debut in 1954 with the Milwaukee Braves, just
eight years after Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier and
became the first African American to play in the majors. Aaron, known
as hard working and quiet, was the last Negro league player to also
compete in the Major Leagues.
In 1957, with characteristically little fanfare, Aaron, who primarily
played right field, was named the National League's Most Valuable
Player as the Milwaukee Braves won the pennant. A few weeks later, his
three home runs in the World Series helped his team triumph over the
heavily favored New York Yankees. Although "Hammerin' Hank"
specialized in home runs, he was also an extremely dependable batter,
and by the end of his career he held baseball's career record for most
runs batted in: 2,297.
Aaron's playing career spanned three teams and 23 years. He was with
the Milwaukee Braves from 1954 to 1965, the Atlanta Braves from 1966
to 1974 and the Milwaukee Brewers from 1975 to 1976. He hung up his
cleats in 1976 with 755 career home runs and went on to become one of
baseball's first African-American executives, with the Atlanta Braves,
and a leading spokesperson for minority hiring. Hank Aaron was
inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1982.

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General Interest
1974 : Aaron sets new home run record
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=4903
563 BC: Buddhists celebrate birth of Gautama Buddha
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6861
1935 : WPA established by Congress
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4901
1953 : Kenyatta jailed for Mau Mau uprising
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4902

American Revolution
1778 : John Adams arrives in Paris to replace Silas Deane
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=456

Automotive
1910 : L.A. Motordome opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7361
1916 : Burman crashes at Corona Boulevard
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7362

Civil War
1864 : Battle of Mansfield, Louisiana
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2164

Cold War
1950 : McCarthy publicly attacks Owen Lattimore
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2631

Crime
2005 : Olympic Park bomber Eric Rudolph agrees to plead guilty
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=966

Disaster
1916 : California road race kills five
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=397

Entertainment
1918 : Fairbanks and Chaplin sell war bonds
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3152
1986 : Clint Eastwood elected mayor
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3153
1990 : Twin Peaks debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3154
1994 : Nirvana's Kurt Cobain is found dead at 27
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3151

Literary
1955 : Barbara Kingsolver is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3933

Old West
1842 : Elizabeth Bacon Custer is born in Michigan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4482

Presidential
1935 : FDR signs Emergency Relief Appropriation Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=489

Sports
1974 : Aaron hits his 715th home run
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57528

Vietnam War
1972 : North Vietnamese forces open a third front
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1778
1975 : Weyand reports to Congress
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1779

Wall Street
1942 : WPB ends non-war production
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5816
1952 : Truman takes on steel plants
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5815

World War I
1904 : Britain and France sign Entente Cordiale
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=427

World War II
1944 : Russians attack Germans in drive to expel them from Crimea
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6410
1945 : Defiant theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer is hanged
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6409
1981 : Omar Bradley dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6411


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[#] Wed Apr 09 2008 06:02:31 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Robert E. Lee surrenders

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April 9: General Interest
1865 : Robert E. Lee surrenders

At Appomattox, Virginia, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders
his 28,000 troops to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, effectively
ending the American Civil War. Forced to abandon the Confederate
capital of Richmond, blocked from joining the surviving Confederate
force in North Carolina, and harassed constantly by Union cavalry, Lee
had no other option.

In retreating from the Union army's Appomattox Campaign, the Army of
Northern Virginia had stumbled through the Virginia countryside
stripped of food and supplies. At one point, Union cavalry forces
under General Philip Sheridan had actually outrun Lee's army, blocking
their retreat and taking 6,000 prisoners at Sayler's Creek. Desertions
were mounting daily, and by April 8 the Confederates were surrounded
with no possibility of escape. On April 9, Lee sent a message to Grant
announcing his willingness to surrender. The two generals met in the
parlor of the Wilmer McLean home at one o'clock in the afternoon.

Lee and Grant, both holding the highest rank in their respective
armies, had known each other slightly during the Mexican War and
exchanged awkward personal inquiries. Characteristically, Grant
arrived in his muddy field uniform while Lee had turned out in full
dress attire, complete with sash and sword. Lee asked for the terms,
and Grant hurriedly wrote them out. All officers and men were to be
pardoned, and they would be sent home with their private
property--most important, the horses, which could be used for a late
spring planting. Officers would keep their side arms, and Lee's
starving men would be given Union rations.

Shushing a band that had begun to play in celebration, General Grant
told his officers, "The war is over. The Rebels are our countrymen
again." Although scattered resistance continued for several weeks, for
all practical purposes the Civil War had come to an end.

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General Interest
1865 : Robert E. Lee surrenders
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=4904
1939 : Marian Anderson sings at Lincoln Memorial
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4905
1940 : Germany invades Norway
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4906
1959 : First astronauts introduced
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6862
2005 : Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles wed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4907

American Revolution
1778 : Jeremiah Wadsworth named commissary general
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=457

Automotive
1905 : Aerial car ferry opens in Minnesota
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7364
1986 : French government rejects Renault privatization
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7363

Civil War
1865 : Lee surrenders
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2165

Cold War
1987 : George Shultz condemns Soviet spying
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2632

Crime
1984 : A husband attempts murder for money in England
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=967

Disaster
1947 : Tornado reduces Oklahoma town to rubble
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=398

Entertainment
1962 : West Side Story wins Academy Award
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3156
1972 : Jane Fonda wins Oscar
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3155
1976 : Singer-songwriter Phil Ochs dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3157

Literary
1859 : Mark Twain receives steamboat pilot's license
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3934

Old West
1881 : Billy the Kid convicted of murder
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4483

Presidential
1962 : Kennedy throws first pitch at new D.C. stadium
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=490

Sports
1978 : Gervin beats Thompson in NBA scoring title duel
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57529

Vietnam War
1969 : "Chicago Eight" plead not guilty
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1780

Wall Street
1909 : Congress passes Payne-Aldrich Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5817

World War I
1918 : Battle of the Lys begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=428

World War II
1940 : Germany invades Norway and Denmark
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6412
1942 : U.S. surrenders in Bataan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6413

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[#] Thu Apr 10 2008 06:02:55 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: ASPCA is Founded

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

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April 10: General Interest
1866 : ASPCA is founded

On April 10, 1866, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City by philanthropist and
diplomat Henry Bergh, 54.


In 1863, Bergh had been appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to a
diplomatic post at the Russian court of Czar Alexander II. It was
there that he was horrified to witness work horses beaten by their
peasant drivers. En route back to America, a June 1865 visit to the
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in London
awakened his determination to secure a charter not only to incorporate
the ASPCA but to exercise the power to arrest and prosecute violators
of the law.


Back in New York, Bergh pleaded on behalf of "these mute servants of
mankind" at a February 8, 1866, meeting at Clinton Hall. He argued
that protecting animals was an issue that crossed party lines and
class boundaries. "This is a matter purely of conscience; it has no
perplexing side issues," he said. "It is a moral question in all its
aspects." The speech prompted a number of dignitaries to sign his
"Declaration of the Rights of Animals."


Bergh's impassioned accounts of the horrors inflicted on animals
convinced the New York State legislature to pass the charter
incorporating the ASPCA on April 10, 1866. Nine days later, the first
effective anti-cruelty law in the United States was passed, allowing
the ASPCA to investigate complaints of animal cruelty and to make
arrests.

Bergh was a hands-on reformer, becoming a familiar sight on the
streets and in the courtrooms of New York. He regularly inspected
slaughter houses, worked with police to close down dog- and
rat-fighting pits and lectured in schools and to adult societies. In
1867, the ASPCA established and operated the nation's first ambulance
for horses.

As the pioneer and innovator of the humane movement, the ASPCA quickly
became the model for more than 25 other humane organizations in the
United States and Canada. And by the time Bergh died in 1888, 37 of
the 38 states in the Union had passed anti-cruelty laws.


Bergh's dramatic street rescues of mistreated horses and livestock
served as a model for those trying to protect abused children. After
Mary Ellen McCormack, 9, was found tied to a bed and brutally beaten
by her foster parents in 1874, activists founded the New York Society
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Bergh served as one of the
group's first vice presidents.

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General Interest
1866 : ASPCA is founded
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=58398
1919 : Zapata assassinated in Mexico
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4908
1942 : Bataan Death March begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4909
1972 : Chaplin receives Oscar
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6863

American Revolution
1778 : John Paul Jones sets out to raid British ships
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=458

Automotive
1944 : Henry Ford II is promoted
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7365
1972 : Fiat executive is executed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7366

Civil War
1865 : Lee's last orders
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2166

Cold War
1971 : U.S. table tennis team visits communist China
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2633

Crime
1834 : A torture chamber is uncovered by arson
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=968

Disaster
1963 : Atomic submarine sinks in Atlantic
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=399

Entertainment
1939 : Hit radio quiz show premieres
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3159
1953 : First color feature in 3-D opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3160
1970 : McCartney announces Beatles breakup
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3158
1975 : Josephine Baker dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3161

Literary
1906 : The Gift of the Magi is published
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3935

Old West
1933 : Civilian Conservation Corps created
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4484

Presidential
1933 : FDR creates Civilian Conservation Corps
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=491

Sports
2005 : Tiger Woods wins fourth Masters
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57530

Vietnam War
1970 : Poll reveals that public approval of Vietnam policy is down
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1771
1972 : B-52s begin bombing North Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1772

Wall Street
1816 : Congress ok's second U.S. Bank
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5818
1962 : Kennedy criticizes steel industry
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5819

World War I
1918 : Congress of Oppressed Nationalities closes in Rome
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=429

World War II
1941 : Croatia declares independence
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6414

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[#] Fri Apr 11 2008 06:02:25 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Napoleon exiled to Elba

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

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April 11: General Interest
1814 : Napoleon exiled to Elba

On this day in 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France and one of
the greatest military leaders in history, abdicates the throne, and,
in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, is banished to the Mediterranean
island of Elba.


The future emperor was born in Ajaccio, Corsica, on August 15, 1769.
After attending military school, he fought during the French
Revolution of 1789 and rapidly rose through the military ranks,
leading French troops in a number of successful campaigns throughout
Europe in the late 1700s. By 1799, he had established himself at the
top of a military dictatorship. In 1804, he became emperor of France
and continued to consolidate power through his military campaigns, so
that by 1810 much of Europe came under his rule. Although Napoleon
developed a reputation for being power-hungry and insecure, he is also
credited with enacting a series of important political and social
reforms that had a lasting impact on European society, including
judiciary systems, constitutions, voting rights for all men and the
end of feudalism. Additionally, he supported education, science and
literature. His Code Napoleon, which codified key freedoms gained
during the French Revolution, such as religious tolerance, remains the
foundation of French civil law.


In 1812, thinking that Russia was plotting an alliance with England,
Napoleon launched an invasion against the Russians that eventually
ended with his troops retreating from Moscow and much of Europe
uniting against him. In 1814, Napoleon's broken forces gave up and
Napoleon offered to step down in favor of his son. When this offer was
rejected, he abdicated and was sent to Elba. In March 1815, he escaped
his island exile and returned to Paris, where he regained supporters
and reclaimed his emperor title, Napoleon I, in a period known as the
Hundred Days. However, in June 1815, he was defeated at the bloody
Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon's defeat ultimately signaled the end of
France's domination of Europe. He abdicated for a second time and was
exiled to the remote island of Saint Helena, in the southern Atlantic
Ocean, where he lived out the rest of his days. He died at age 52 on
May 5, 1821, possibly from stomach cancer, although some theories
contend he was poisoned.

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General Interest
1814 : Napoleon exiled to Elba
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52564
1970 : Apollo 13 launched to moon
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6864
1979 : Idi Amin overthrown
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4910

American Revolution
1721 : Moravian missionary David Zeisberger is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=459

Automotive
1888 : Henry Ford marries
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7367
1913 : Bugatti proposes "super car"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7368

Civil War
1862 : Fall of Fort Pulaski, Georgia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2167

Cold War
1951 : Truman relieves MacArthur of duties in Korea
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2634

Crime
1870 : War is narrowly averted
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=969

Disaster
1968 : Last survivors of ferry accident rescued
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=400

Entertainment
1915 : The Tramp released
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3162
1917 : Scott Joplin dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3163
1944 : Marlene Dietrich's first overseas show for G.I.'s
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3164
1970 :
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3165

Literary
1931 : Dorothy Parker resigns as drama critic for The New Yorker
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3936

Old West
1803 : Talleyrand offers to sell Louisiana
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4485

Presidential
1977 : President Carter hosts White House Easter egg roll
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=492

Sports
2004 : Phil Mickelson wins first major at Masters
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57531

Vietnam War
1963 : Troops from Hawaii sent to South Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1774
1972 : B-52s strike North Vietnamese positions
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1773

Wall Street
1930 : Nicholas Brady is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5821
1941 : FDR fights inflation
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5820

World War I
1919 : International Labor Organization founded
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=480

World War II
1945 : The U.S. army liberates Buchenwald concentration camp
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6415

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[#] Fri Apr 11 2008 11:34:21 EDT from rss @

Subject: Napoleon exiled to Elba

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

On this day in 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France and one of the greatest military leaders in history, abdicates the throne, and, in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, is banished to the Mediterranean island of Elba.

The future emperor was born in Ajaccio, Corsica, on August 15, 1769. After attending military school, he fought during the French Revolution of 1789 and rapidly rose through the military ranks, leading French troops in a number of successful campaigns throughout Europe in the late 1700s. By 1799, he had established himself at the top of a military dictatorship. In 1804, he became emperor of France and continued to consolidate power through his military campaigns, so that by 1810 much of Europe came under his rule. Although Napoleon developed a reputation for being power-hungry and insecure, he is also credited with enacting a series of important political and social reforms that had a lasting impact on European society, including judiciary systems, constitutions, voting rights for all men and the end of feudalism. Additionally, he supported education, science and literature. His Code Napoleon, which codified key freedoms gained during the French Revolution, such as religious tolerance, remains the foundation of French civil law.

In 1812, thinking that Russia was plotting an alliance with England, Napoleon launched an invasion against the Russians that eventually ended with his troops retreating from Moscow and much of Europe uniting against him. In 1814, Napoleon's broken forces gave up and Napoleon offered to step down in favor of his son. When this offer was rejected, he abdicated and was sent to Elba. In March 1815, he escaped his island exile and returned to Paris, where he regained supporters and reclaimed his emperor title, Napoleon I, in a period known as the Hundred Days. However, in June 1815, he was defeated at the bloody Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon's defeat ultimately signaled the end of France's domination of Europe. He abdicated for a second time and was exiled to the remote island of Saint Helena, in the southern Atlantic Ocean, where he lived out the rest of his days. He died at age 52 on May 5, 1821, possibly from stomach cancer, although some theories contend he was poisoned.



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[#] Sat Apr 12 2008 00:08:41 EDT from rss @

Subject: The Civil War begins

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

The bloodiest four years in American history begin when Confederate shore batteries under General P.G.T. Beauregard open fire on Union-held Fort Sumter in South Carolina's Charleston Bay. During the next 34 hours, 50 Confederate guns and mortars launched more than 4,000 rounds at the poorly supplied fort. On April 13, U.S. Major Robert Anderson surrendered the fort. Two days later, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteer soldiers to quell the Southern "insurrection."

As early as 1858, the ongoing conflict between North and South over the issue of slavery had led Southern leadership to discuss a unified separation from the United States. By 1860, the majority of the slave states were publicly threatening secession if the Republicans, the anti-slavery party, won the presidency. Following Republican Abraham Lincoln's victory over the divided Democratic Party in November 1860, South Carolina immediately initiated secession proceedings. On December 20, the South Carolina legislature passed the "Ordinance of Secession," which declared that "the Union now subsisting between South Carolina and other states, under the name of the United States of America, is hereby dissolved." After the declaration, South Carolina set about seizing forts, arsenals, and other strategic locations within the state. Within six weeks, five more Southern states--Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana--had followed South Carolina's lead.

In February 1861, delegates from those states convened to establish a unified government. Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was subsequently elected the first president of the Confederate States of America. When Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861, a total of seven states (Texas had joined the pack) had seceded from the Union, and federal troops held only Fort Sumter in South Carolina, Fort Pickens off the Florida coast, and a handful of minor outposts in the South. Four years after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, the Confederacy was defeated at the total cost of 620,000 Union and Confederate soldiers dead.



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[#] Sat Apr 12 2008 06:02:26 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: The Civil War begins

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Welcome to the THIS DAY IN HISTORY newsletter
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April 12: General Interest
1861 : The Civil War begins

The bloodiest four years in American history begin when Confederate
shore batteries under General P.G.T. Beauregard open fire on
Union-held Fort Sumter in South Carolina's Charleston Bay. During the
next 34 hours, 50 Confederate guns and mortars launched more than
4,000 rounds at the poorly supplied fort. On April 13, U.S. Major
Robert Anderson surrendered the fort. Two days later, U.S. President
Abraham Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteer
soldiers to quell the Southern "insurrection."

As early as 1858, the ongoing conflict between North and South over
the issue of slavery had led Southern leadership to discuss a unified
separation from the United States. By 1860, the majority of the slave
states were publicly threatening secession if the Republicans, the
anti-slavery party, won the presidency. Following Republican Abraham
Lincoln's victory over the divided Democratic Party in November 1860,
South Carolina immediately initiated secession proceedings. On
December 20, the South Carolina legislature passed the "Ordinance of
Secession," which declared that "the Union now subsisting between
South Carolina and other states, under the name of the United States
of America, is hereby dissolved." After the declaration, South
Carolina set about seizing forts, arsenals, and other strategic
locations within the state. Within six weeks, five more Southern
states--Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana--had
followed South Carolina's lead.

In February 1861, delegates from those states convened to establish a
unified government. Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was subsequently
elected the first president of the Confederate States of America. When
Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861, a total of seven
states (Texas had joined the pack) had seceded from the Union, and
federal troops held only Fort Sumter in South Carolina, Fort Pickens
off the Florida coast, and a handful of minor outposts in the South.
Four years after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, the
Confederacy was defeated at the total cost of 620,000 Union and
Confederate soldiers dead.

history.com/tdih.do

General Interest
1861 : The Civil War begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=4911
1864 : The Fort Pillow Massacre
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4912
1945 : President Roosevelt dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4913
1961 : First man in space
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6865
1981 : First launching of the space shuttle
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4914

American Revolution
1770 : British repeal hated Townshend Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=460

Automotive
1888 : MG founder is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7369
1977 : GM pulls plug on Wankel
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7370

Civil War
1861 : Fort Sumter fired upon
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2168
1864 : Fort Pillow Massacre
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2169
1865 : Surrender of Mobile, Alabama
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2170

Cold War
1945 : President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2635

Crime
1633 : Galileo is convicted of heresy
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=970

Disaster
1908 : Fire threatens Massachusetts oil refineries
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=401

Entertainment
1909 : IMP established
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3167
1914 : First movie "palace" opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3168
1922 : Fatty Arbuckle not guilty
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3169
1954 : Haley records "Rock Around the Clock"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3166

Literary
1949 : Legal thriller writer Scott Turow is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3937

Old West
1858 : First gentile governor arrives in Utah
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4486

Presidential
1945 : FDR dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=493

Sports
1981 : Lawrence Taylor drafted by NY Giants
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57532

Vietnam War
1961 : Rostow recommends escalation of effort
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1782
1975 : U.S. Embassy in Cambodia evacuated
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1781

Wall Street
1770 : Townshend Acts tossed aside
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5823
1937 : Supreme Court ok's NLRA
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5822

World War I
1917 : Canadians capture Vimy Ridge
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=430

World War II
1945 : Roosevelt dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=53969

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[#] Sun Apr 13 2008 00:09:54 EDT from rss @

Subject: Tiger Woods wins first major

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

On April 13, 1997, in Augusta, Georgia, 21-year-old Tiger Woods wins the prestigious Masters Tournament by a record 12 strokes. It was Woods' first victory in one of golf's four major championships--the U.S. Open, the British Open, the PGA Championship, and the Masters--and the greatest performance by a professional golfer in more than a century.

Eldrick "Tiger" Woods was born in a suburb of Los Angeles, California, on December 30, 1975. The only child of an African-American father and a Thai mother, Woods was encouraged from infancy by his father for a career in golf. At the age of two, he teed off against comedian Bob Hope on television's Mike Douglas Show. At five years old, he was featured on the television show That's Incredible. At age eight, Tiger won his first junior world championship, and in 1991, at age 15, he became the youngest player ever to win the U.S. Junior Amateur Championship. He also captured the 1992 and 1993 Junior Amateur titles, and in 1994 accepted a scholarship to attend Stanford University. That year, he came from six holes behind to win the first of his three consecutive U.S. Amateur championships. He was 18 years old and the youngest Amateur champion in history.

In 1995, Tiger played the Masters, his first professional major championship. The Augusta National Golf Club, which runs the Masters, had not let an African-American join its ranks until 1991. Woods finished 41st in his first Masters appearance. In 1996, he won the collegiate title. By this time, he was already attracting considerable media attention and attracting throngs of new fans to the sport. After claiming his third U.S. Amateur title, Woods left college and turned professional in August 1996. Playing as a pro in eight Professional Golfers' Association (PGA) events in 1996, he won a title and was named the PGA Tour's outstanding rookie. In December 1996, he was celebrated by the magazine Sports Illustrated as its "Sportsman of the Year."

In professional play, most of Woods' opponents were in their late 30s or early 40s. At 6'2" and 155 pounds, he was slender and athletic, and had developed a devastating swing that routinely allowed him to hit drives of more than 300 yards. He also had a reputation for mental toughness and was a superb putter and chipper. In April 1997, all these attributes came together for the most decisive victory in the Masters' 44-year history.

His margin of victory--12 strokes--was the largest in the 20th century, and second only to Old Tom Morris' 13-shot margin at the 1862 British Open. His score of 18-under-par 270 broke Jack Nicklaus' 32-year-old Masters record of 17-under-par 271. He was the youngest golfer by two years to win the Masters and the first person of Asian or African heritage to win a major. Never before had so many spectators come to Augusta National, and never before had so many people watched it on television.

By June 1997, Tiger was ranked No. 1 in the world. In 1999, he won eight PGA tournaments, earned a record $6 million, and began a winning streak that eventually tied Ben Hogan's 1948 streak, the second longest in PGA history. In June 2000, he won his first U.S. Open title, shooting a record 12-under-par 272 to finish 15 strokes ahead of his nearest competitors. It was the greatest professional golf performance in history, surpassing even his 1997 Masters' triumph and Old Tom Morris' 1862 showing. In July 2000, he captured the British Open, and in August the PGA championship. At the age of 24, he was the youngest player ever to win all four major golf titles and just the second to win three majors in a year.



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[#] Sun Apr 13 2008 11:18:11 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Tiger Woods wins first major

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April 13: General Interest
1997 : Tiger Woods wins first major

On April 13, 1997, in Augusta, Georgia, 21-year-old Tiger Woods wins
the prestigious Masters Tournament by a record 12 strokes. It was
Woods' first victory in one of golf's four major championships--the
U.S. Open, the British Open, the PGA Championship, and the
Masters--and the greatest performance by a professional golfer in more
than a century.

Eldrick "Tiger" Woods was born in a suburb of Los Angeles, California,
on December 30, 1975. The only child of an African-American father and
a Thai mother, Woods was encouraged from infancy by his father for a
career in golf. At the age of two, he teed off against comedian Bob
Hope on television's Mike Douglas Show. At five years old, he was
featured on the television show That's Incredible. At age eight, Tiger
won his first junior world championship, and in 1991, at age 15, he
became the youngest player ever to win the U.S. Junior Amateur
Championship. He also captured the 1992 and 1993 Junior Amateur
titles, and in 1994 accepted a scholarship to attend Stanford
University. That year, he came from six holes behind to win the first
of his three consecutive U.S. Amateur championships. He was 18 years
old and the youngest Amateur champion in history.

In 1995, Tiger played the Masters, his first professional major
championship. The Augusta National Golf Club, which runs the Masters,
had not let an African-American join its ranks until 1991. Woods
finished 41st in his first Masters appearance. In 1996, he won the
collegiate title. By this time, he was already attracting considerable
media attention and attracting throngs of new fans to the sport. After
claiming his third U.S. Amateur title, Woods left college and turned
professional in August 1996. Playing as a pro in eight Professional
Golfers' Association (PGA) events in 1996, he won a title and was
named the PGA Tour's outstanding rookie. In December 1996, he was
celebrated by the magazine Sports Illustrated as its "Sportsman of the
Year."

In professional play, most of Woods' opponents were in their late 30s
or early 40s. At 6'2" and 155 pounds, he was slender and athletic, and
had developed a devastating swing that routinely allowed him to hit
drives of more than 300 yards. He also had a reputation for mental
toughness and was a superb putter and chipper. In April 1997, all
these attributes came together for the most decisive victory in the
Masters' 44-year history.

His margin of victory--12 strokes--was the largest in the 20th
century, and second only to Old Tom Morris' 13-shot margin at the 1862
British Open. His score of 18-under-par 270 broke Jack Nicklaus'
32-year-old Masters record of 17-under-par 271. He was the youngest
golfer by two years to win the Masters and the first person of Asian
or African heritage to win a major. Never before had so many
spectators come to Augusta National, and never before had so many
people watched it on television.

By June 1997, Tiger was ranked No. 1 in the world. In 1999, he won
eight PGA tournaments, earned a record $6 million, and began a winning
streak that eventually tied Ben Hogan's 1948 streak, the second
longest in PGA history. In June 2000, he won his first U.S. Open
title, shooting a record 12-under-par 272 to finish 15 strokes ahead
of his nearest competitors. It was the greatest professional golf
performance in history, surpassing even his 1997 Masters' triumph and
Old Tom Morris' 1862 showing. In July 2000, he captured the British
Open, and in August the PGA championship. At the age of 24, he was the
youngest player ever to win all four major golf titles and just the
second to win three majors in a year.

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General Interest
1997 : Tiger Woods wins first major
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=6866
1919 : The Amritsar Massacre
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4915
1941 : Japan and USSR sign nonaggression pact
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4916
1970 : Apollo 13 oxygen tank explodes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4917

American Revolution
1777 : British attack at Bound Brook, New Jersey
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=461

Automotive
1925 : Haynes founder dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7371

Civil War
1861 : Fort Sumter surrenders
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2171

Cold War
1990 : Soviets admit to Katyn Massacre
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2636

Crime
1984 : Mass murderer Wilder commits suicide
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=971

Disaster
1360 : Hail kills English troops
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=402

Entertainment
1939 : Wuthering Heights premieres
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3171
1964 : First African-American Best Actor Oscar
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3170
1986 : "Return to Mayberry"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3172

Literary
1909 : Eudora Welty is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3938

Old West
1866 : Butch Cassidy is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4487

Presidential
1743 : Thomas Jefferson is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=494

Sports
1997 : Tiger Woods wins his first Masters
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57533

Vietnam War
1966 : SCLC passes resolution about South Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1784
1972 : North Vietnamese launch major attack on An Loc
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1783

Wall Street
1852 : F.W. Woolworth is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5824

World War I
1918 : Germans capture Helsinki, Finland
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=431

World War II
1939 : USS Astoria attempts pre-war reconnaissance
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1945 : Hitler bluffs from bunker as Russians advance and atrocities continue
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[#] Mon Apr 14 2008 00:08:50 EDT from rss @

Subject: Lincoln is shot

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On this day in 1865, John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, fatally shoots President Abraham Lincoln at a play at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C.  The attack came only five days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his massive army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War.
Booth, a Maryland native born in 1838, who remained in the North during the war despite his Confederate sympathies, initially plotted to capture President Lincoln and take him to Richmond, the Confederate capital. However, on March 20, 1865, the day of the planned kidnapping, the president failed to appear at the spot where Booth and his six fellow conspirators lay in wait. Two weeks later, Richmond fell to Union forces. In April, with Confederate armies near collapse across the South, Booth hatched a desperate plan to save the Confederacy.
Learning that Lincoln was to attend a performance of "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater on April 14, Booth masterminded the simultaneous assassination of Lincoln, Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward. By murdering the president and two of his possible successors, Booth and his conspirators hoped to throw the U.S. government into disarray.
On the evening of April 14, conspirator Lewis T. Powell burst into Secretary of State Seward's home, seriously wounding him and three others, while George A. Atzerodt, assigned to Vice President Johnson, lost his nerve and fled. Meanwhile, just after 10 p.m., Booth entered Lincoln's private theater box unnoticed and shot the president with a single bullet in the back of his head. Slashing an army officer who rushed at him, Booth leapt to the stage and shouted "Sic semper tyrannis! [Thus always to tyrants]--the South is avenged!" Although Booth broke his leg jumping from Lincoln's box, he managed to escape Washington on horseback.
The president, mortally wounded, was carried to a lodging house opposite Ford's Theater. About 7:22 a.m. the next morning, Lincoln, age 56, died--the first U.S. president to be assassinated. Booth, pursued by the army and other secret forces, was finally cornered in a barn near Bowling Green, Virginia, and died from a possibly self-inflicted bullet wound as the barn was burned to the ground. Of the eight other people eventually charged with the conspiracy, four were hanged and four were jailed.
Lincoln, the 16th U.S. president, was buried on May 4, 1865, in Springfield, Illinois.



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[#] Mon Apr 14 2008 06:03:43 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Lincoln is shot

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Welcome to the THIS DAY IN HISTORY newsletter
from HISTORY

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Control and six airbags standard

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April 14: General Interest
1865 : Lincoln is shot

On this day in 1865, John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate
sympathizer, fatally shoots President Abraham Lincoln at a play at
Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. The attack came only five days
after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his massive army
at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, effectively ending the American
Civil War.
Booth, a Maryland native born in 1838, who remained in the North
during the war despite his Confederate sympathies, initially plotted
to capture President Lincoln and take him to Richmond, the Confederate
capital. However, on March 20, 1865, the day of the planned
kidnapping, the president failed to appear at the spot where Booth and
his six fellow conspirators lay in wait. Two weeks later, Richmond
fell to Union forces. In April, with Confederate armies near collapse
across the South, Booth hatched a desperate plan to save the
Confederacy.
Learning that Lincoln was to attend a performance of "Our American
Cousin" at Ford's Theater on April 14, Booth masterminded the
simultaneous assassination of Lincoln, Vice President Andrew Johnson
and Secretary of State William H. Seward. By murdering the president
and two of his possible successors, Booth and his conspirators hoped
to throw the U.S. government into disarray.
On the evening of April 14, conspirator Lewis T. Powell burst into
Secretary of State Seward's home, seriously wounding him and three
others, while George A. Atzerodt, assigned to Vice President Johnson,
lost his nerve and fled. Meanwhile, just after 10 p.m., Booth entered
Lincoln's private theater box unnoticed and shot the president with a
single bullet in the back of his head. Slashing an army officer who
rushed at him, Booth leapt to the stage and shouted "Sic semper
tyrannis! [Thus always to tyrants]--the South is avenged!" Although
Booth broke his leg jumping from Lincoln's box, he managed to escape
Washington on horseback.
The president, mortally wounded, was carried to a lodging house
opposite Ford's Theater. About 7:22 a.m. the next morning, Lincoln,
age 56, died--the first U.S. president to be assassinated. Booth,
pursued by the army and other secret forces, was finally cornered in a
barn near Bowling Green, Virginia, and died from a possibly
self-inflicted bullet wound as the barn was burned to the ground. Of
the eight other people eventually charged with the conspiracy, four
were hanged and four were jailed.
Lincoln, the 16th U.S. president, was buried on May 4, 1865, in
Springfield, Illinois.

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General Interest
1865 : Lincoln is shot
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52439
1912 : RMS Titanic hits iceberg
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4918
1918 : U.S. fliers in first dogfight over western front
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4919
1986 : U.S. bombs Libya
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4920
1988 : Soviets to withdraw from Afghanistan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4921

American Revolution
1775 : First American abolition society founded in Philadelphia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=462

Automotive
1927 : Volvo "Jakob" rolls off the line
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7372

Civil War
1865 : Lincoln is shot
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2172

Cold War
1950 : President Truman receives NSC-68
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2637

Crime
1865 : John Wilkes Booth shoots Abraham Lincoln
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=972

Disaster
1944 : Explosion on cargo ship rocks Bombay, India
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=403

Entertainment
1894 : Edison's Kinetoscope
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3173
1956 : First video camera for sound and pictures
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3174
1995 : Burl Ives dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3175

Literary
1818 : Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language is printed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3939

Old West
1935 : Loretta Lynn is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4489
1935 : A major Dust Bowl storm strikes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4488

Presidential
1865 : President Lincoln is shot
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6867

Sports
1960 : Montreal Canadiens win fifth consecutive Stanley Cup
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57534

Vietnam War
1965 : 173rd Airborne Brigade ordered to South Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1785
1975 : Operation "Baby Lift" concludes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1786

Wall Street
1865 : Lincoln creates Secret Service
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5826
1874 : Congress endorses greenbacks
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5825

World War I
1916 : Battle of Lake Naroch ends
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World War II
1945 : U.S. Fifth Army joins in Italian offensive
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[#] Mon Apr 14 2008 10:32:24 EDT from "This Day In History" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to history@bubbanfriends.org

Subject: Unsuccessful Unsubscribe

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[#] Mon Apr 14 2008 10:46:17 EDT from fleeb @ Uncensored

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Somehow, that's amusing.

[#] Mon Apr 14 2008 16:17:39 EDT from Freakdog @ Dog Pound BBS II

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Mon Apr 14 2008 10:46:17 AM EDT from fleeb@uncnsrd (Uncensored)


Somehow, that's amusing.

Yeah.

Since we seem to be getting RSS feed, now, I thought I'd discontinue the email feed.



[#] Mon Apr 14 2008 17:15:09 EDT from IGnatius T Foobar @ Uncensored

Subject: Re: Lincoln is shot

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]


"Other than that, Mrs. Lincoln, how did you enjoy the show?"


[#] Tue Apr 15 2008 00:07:23 EDT from rss @

Subject: Jackie Robinson breaks color barrier

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On this day in 1947, Jackie Robinson, age 28, becomes the first African-American player in Major League Baseball when he steps onto Ebbets Field in Brooklyn to compete for the Brooklyn Dodgers. Robinson broke the color barrier in a sport that had been segregated for more than 50 years. Exactly 50 years later, on April 15, 1997, Robinson's groundbreaking career was honored and his uniform number, 42, was retired from Major League Baseball by Commissioner Bud Selig in a ceremony attended by over 50,000 fans at New York City's Shea Stadium. Robinson's was the first-ever number retired by all teams in the league.

Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia, to a family of sharecroppers. Growing up, he excelled at sports and attended the University of California at Los Angeles, where he was the first athlete to letter in four varsity sports: baseball, basketball, football and track. After financial difficulties forced Robinson to drop out of UCLA, he joined the army in 1942 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant. After protesting instances of racial discrimination during his military service, Robinson was court-martialed in 1944. Ultimately, though, he was honorably discharged.

After the army, Robinson played for a season in the Negro American League. In 1945, Branch Rickey, general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, recruited Robinson, who was known for his integrity and intelligence as well as his talent, to join one of the club's farm teams. In 1947, Robinson was called up to the Majors and soon became a star infielder and outfielder for the Dodgers, as well as the National League's Rookie of the Year. In 1949, the right-hander was named the National League's Most Valuable Player and league batting champ. Robinson played on the National League All-Star team from 1949 through 1954 and led the Dodgers to six National League pennants and one World Series, in 1955. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962, his first year of eligibility.

Despite his talent and success as a player, Robinson faced tremendous racial discrimination throughout his career, from baseball fans and some fellow players. Additionally, Jim Crow laws prevented Robinson from using the same hotels and restaurants as his teammates while playing in the South.

After retiring from baseball in 1957, Robinson became a businessman and civil rights activist. He died October 24, 1972, at age 53, in Stamford, Connecticut.



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[#] Tue Apr 15 2008 08:57:53 EDT from fleeb @ Uncensored

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]


I didn't realize he died so young.

[#] Wed Apr 16 2008 00:19:21 EDT from rss @

Subject: Hallucinogenic effects of LSD discovered

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In Basel, Switzerland, Albert Hoffman, a Swiss chemist working at the Sandoz pharmaceutical research laboratory, accidentally consumes LSD-25, a synthetic drug he had created in 1938 as part of his research into the medicinal value of lysergic acid compounds. After taking the drug, formally known as lysergic acid diethylamide, Dr. Hoffman was disturbed by unusual sensations and hallucinations. In his notes, he related the experience:

"Last Friday, April 16, 1943, I was forced to interrupt my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and proceed home, being affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant, intoxicated-like condition characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away."

After intentionally taking the drug again to confirm that it had caused this strange physical and mental state, Dr. Hoffman published a report announcing his discovery, and so LSD made its entry into the world as a hallucinogenic drug. Widespread use of the so-called "mind-expanding" drug did not begin until the 1960s, when counterculture figures such as Albert M. Hubbard, Timothy Leary, and Ken Kesey publicly expounded on the benefits of using LSD as a recreational drug. The manufacture, sale, possession, and use of LSD, known to cause negative reactions in some of those who take it, were made illegal in the United States in 1965.



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