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[#] Thu Mar 20 2008 06:01:51 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: LBJ sends federal troops to Alabama

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March 20: General Interest
1965 : LBJ sends federal troops to Alabama

On this day in 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson notifies Alabama's
Governor George Wallace that he will use federal authority to call up
the Alabama National Guard in order to supervise a planned civil
rights march from Selma to Montgomery.


Intimidation and discrimination had earlier prevented Selma's black
population--over half the city--from registering and voting. On
Sunday, March 7, 1965, a group of 600 demonstrators marched on the
capital city of Montgomery to protest this disenfranchisement and the
earlier killing of a black man, Jimmie Lee Jackson, by a state
trooper. In brutal scenes that were later broadcast on television,
state and local police attacked the marchers with billy clubs and tear
gas. TV viewers far and wide were outraged by the images, and a
protest march was organized just two days after "Bloody Sunday" by
Martin Luther King, Jr., head of the Southern Christian Leadership
Conference (SCLC). King turned the marchers around, however, rather
than carry out the march without federal judicial approval.


After an Alabama federal judge ruled on March 18 that a third march
could go ahead, President Johnson and his advisers worked quickly to
find a way to ensure the safety of King and his demonstrators on their
way from Selma to Montgomery. The most powerful obstacle in their way
was Governor Wallace, an outspoken anti-integrationist who was
reluctant to spend any state funds on protecting the demonstrators.
Hours after promising Johnson--in telephone calls recorded by the
White House--that he would call out the Alabama National Guard to
maintain order, Wallace went on television and demanded that Johnson
send in federal troops instead.


Furious, Johnson told Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach to write a
press release stating that because Wallace refused to use the 10,000
available guardsmen to preserve order in his state, Johnson himself
was calling the guard up and giving them all necessary support.
Several days later, 50,000 marchers followed King some 54 miles, under
the watchful eyes of state and federal troops. Arriving safely in
Montgomery on March 25, they watched King deliver his famous "How
Long, Not Long" speech from the steps of the Capitol building. The
clash between Johnson and Wallace--and Johnson's decisive action--was
an important turning point in the civil rights movement. Within five
months, Congress had passed the Voting Rights Act, which Johnson
proudly signed into law on August 6, 1965.

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General Interest
1965 : LBJ sends federal troops to Alabama
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52558
1413 : Henry V ascends upon father's death
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4848
1854 : Republican Party founded
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4849
1995 : Nerve gas attack on Tokyo subway
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6842

American Revolution
1778 : King Louis XVI receives U.S. representatives
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=316

Automotive
1920 : Bugatti delivers first 16-valve
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7321
1928 : Packard founder dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7320

Civil War
1861 : Willie and Tad Lincoln get the measles
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2141

Cold War
1953 : Khrushchev begins his rise to power
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2612

Crime
1995 : Tokyo subways are attacked with sarin gas
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=944

Disaster
1345 : Black Death is "created," allegedly
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=378

Entertainment
1948 : TV's first symphonic concerts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3087
1952 : Humphrey Bogart wins Oscar
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3086
1970 : Steve McQueen wins Grand Prix
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3088

Literary
1852 : Uncle Tom's Cabin is published
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3913

Old West
1823 : Ned Buntline born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4464

Presidential
1965 : LBJ pledges federal troops to Alabama civil-rights march
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=284

Sports
1934 : Babe Didrikson goes to the mound for Philly
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56974

Vietnam War
1954 : Americans alarmed about impending French defeat
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1739
1968 : Retired Marine Commandant comments on conduct of war
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1740

Wall Street
1933 : Roosevelt takes on the economy
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5786

World War I
1915 : Britain and Russia divide future spoils of war
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World War II
1945 : British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma
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[#] Fri Mar 21 2008 06:02:31 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Stanley begins search for Livingstone

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March 21: General Interest
1871 : Stanley begins search for Livingstone

On this day in 1871, journalist Henry Morton Stanley begins his famous
search through Africa for the missing British explorer Dr. David
Livingstone.


In the late 19th century, Europeans and Americans were deeply
fascinated by the "Dark Continent" of Africa and its many mysteries.
Few did more to increase Africa's fame than Livingstone, one of
England's most intrepid explorers. In August 1865, he set out on a
planned two-year expedition to find the source of the Nile River.
Livingstone also wanted to help bring about the abolition of the slave
trade, which was devastating Africa's population.


Almost six years after his expedition began, little had been heard
from Livingstone. James Gordon Bennett, Jr., editor of the New York
Herald, decided to capitalize on the public's craze for news of their
hero. He sent Stanley to lead an expedition into the African
wilderness to find Livingstone or bring back proof of his death. At
age 28, Stanley had his own fascinating past. As a young orphan in
Wales, he crossed the Atlantic on the crew of a merchant ship. He
jumped ship in New Orleans and later served in the Civil War as both a
Confederate and a Union soldier before beginning a career in
journalism.


After setting out from Zanzibar in March 1871, Stanley led his caravan
of nearly 2,000 men into the interior of Africa. Nearly eight months
passed--during which Stanley contracted dysentery, cerebral malaria
and smallpox--before the expedition approached the village of Ujiji,
on the shore of Lake Tanganyika. Sick and poverty-stricken,
Livingstone had come to Ujiji that July after living for some time at
the mercy of Arab slave traders. When Stanley's caravan entered the
village on October 27, flying the American flag, villagers crowded
toward the new arrivals. Spotting a white man with a gray beard in the
crowd, Stanley stepped toward him and stretched out his hand: "Dr.
Livingstone, I presume?"


These words--and Livingstone's grateful response--soon became famous
across Europe and the United States. Though Stanley urged Livingstone
to return with him to London, the explorer vowed to continue his
original mission. Livingstone died 18 months later in today's Zambia;
his body was embalmed and returned to Britain, where he was buried in
Westminster Abbey. As for Stanley, he returned to Africa to fulfill a
promise he had made to Livingstone to find the source of the Nile. He
later damaged his reputation by accepting money from King Leopold II
of Belgium to help create the Belgian-ruled Congo Free State and
promote the slave trade. When he left Africa, Stanley resumed his
British citizenship and even served in Parliament, but when he died he
was refused burial in Westminster Abbey because of his actions in the
Congo Free State.

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General Interest
1871 : Stanley begins search for Livingstone
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52559
1804 : Napoleonic Code approved in France
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4851
1918 : Second Battle of the Somme begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4852
1960 : Massacre in Sharpeville
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4853
1965 : Selma to Montgomery march begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6843

American Revolution
1778 : Massacre at Hancock's Bridge
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=317

Automotive
1950 : Tucker turns the tables
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7322
1960 : Senna is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7323

Civil War
1863 : Edwin V. Sumner dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2142

Cold War
1980 : Carter tells U.S. athletes of Olympic boycott
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2613

Crime
1963 : Alcatraz closes its doors
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=945

Disaster
1932 : Series of tornadoes hits Southeast U.S.
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=379

Entertainment
1952 : Moondog Coronation Ball
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3090
1971 : First use of computer animation
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3091
1980 : J.R. Ewing is shot
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3089
1983 : Little House on the Prairie ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3092

Literary
1678 : Reward offered for identity of pamphlet author
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3914

Old West
1882 : "Broncho Billy" Anderson born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4465

Presidential
1980 : Carter announces Olympic boycott
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=285

Sports
1980 : Ronaldinho is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56975

Vietnam War
1967 : North Vietnam rejects Johnson overture
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1741
1972 : Khmer Rouge shell Phnom Penh
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1742

Wall Street
1995 : Kmart CEO steps down
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5787

World War I
1918 : Germany begins major offensive on the Western Front
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=348

World War II
1943 : Another plot to kill Hitler foiled
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6749

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[#] Sat Mar 22 2008 06:02:21 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Stamp Act imposed on American colonies

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March 22: General Interest
1765 : Stamp Act imposed on American colonies

In an effort to raise funds to pay off debts and defend the vast new
American territories won from the French in the Seven Years' War
(1756-1763), the British government passes the Stamp Act on this day
in 1765. The legislation levied a direct tax on all materials printed
for commercial and legal use in the colonies, from newspapers and
pamphlets to playing cards and dice.

Though the Stamp Act employed a strategy that was a common fundraising
vehicle in England, it stirred a storm of protest in the colonies. The
colonists had recently been hit with three major taxes: the Sugar Act
(1764), which levied new duties on imports of textiles, wines, coffee
and sugar; the Currency Act (1764), which caused a major decline in
the value of the paper money used by colonists; and the Quartering Act
(1765), which required colonists to provide food and lodging to
British troops.

With the passing of the Stamp Act, the colonists' grumbling finally
became an articulated response to what they saw as the mother
country's attempt to undermine their economic strength and
independence. They raised the issue of taxation without
representation, and formed societies throughout the colonies to rally
against the British government and nobles who sought to exploit the
colonies as a source of revenue and raw materials. By October of that
year, nine of the 13 colonies sent representatives to the Stamp Act
Congress, at which the colonists drafted the "Declaration of Rights
and Grievances," a document that railed against the autocratic
policies of the mercantilist British empire.

Realizing that it actually cost more to enforce the Stamp Act in the
protesting colonies than it did to abolish it, the British government
repealed the tax the following year. The fracas over the Stamp Act,
though, helped plant seeds for a far larger movement against the
British government and the eventual battle for independence. Most
important of these was the formation of the Sons of Liberty--a group
of tradesmen who led anti-British protests in Boston and other
seaboard cities--and other groups of wealthy landowners who came
together from the across the colonies. Well after the Stamp Act was
repealed, these societies continued to meet in opposition to what they
saw as the abusive policies of the British empire. Out of their
meetings, a growing nationalism emerged that would culminate in the
fighting of the American Revolution only a decade later.

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General Interest
1765 : Stamp Act imposed on American colonies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52368
1820 : Naval hero killed in duel
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6844
1945 : Arab League formed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4854
1972 : Equal Rights Amendment passed by Congress
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4855

American Revolution
1765 : British pass Stamp Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=318

Automotive
1926 : River Rouge is renamed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7324
1958 : Would-be record-setter Morris is jailed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7325

Civil War
1817 : Braxton Bragg born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2143

Cold War
1947 : Truman orders loyalty checks of federal employees
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2614

Crime
1984 : Teachers are indicted at the McMartin Preschool
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=946

Disaster
1859 : Earthquake destroys landmarks in Quito, Ecuador
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=380

Entertainment
1895 : Louis & August Lumiere demonstrate cinematograph
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3094
1929 : Fox signs Will Rogers
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3093
1958 : Producer Mike Todd killed in plane crash
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3095
1980 : "Another Brick in the Wall" tops the charts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3096

Literary
1913 : Jack London writes authors asking for payment advice
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3915

Old West
1908 : Louis L'Amour born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4466

Presidential
1933 : FDR legalizes sale of beer and wine
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=286

Sports
1894 : First Stanley Cup championship played
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56976

Vietnam War
1965 : Officials confirm "non-lethal gas" was provided
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1744
1968 : Westmoreland to depart South Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1743

Wall Street
1765 : Brits pass Stamp Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5789
1903 : Commission calls for labor improvements
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5788

World War I
1915 : Russians take Austrian garrison at Przemysl
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=349

World War II
1942 : Cripps and Gandhi meet
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6750

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[#] Sun Mar 23 2008 06:04:09 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: OK enters national vernacular

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March 23: General Interest
1839 : OK enters national vernacular

On this day in 1839, the initials "O.K." are first published in The
Boston Morning Post. Meant as an abbreviation for "oll correct," a
popular slang misspelling of "all correct" at the time, OK steadily
made its way into the everyday speech of Americans.

During the late 1830s, it was a favorite practice among younger,
educated circles to misspell words intentionally, then abbreviate them
and use them as slang when talking to one another. Just as teenagers
today have their own slang based on distortions of common words, such
as "kewl" for "cool" or "DZ" for "these," the "in crowd" of the 1830s
had a whole host of slang terms they abbreviated. Popular
abbreviations included "KY" for "No use" ("know yuse"), "KG" for "No
go" ("Know go"), and "OW" for all right ("oll wright").

Of all the abbreviations used during that time, OK was propelled into
the limelight when it was printed in the Boston Morning Post as part
of a joke. Its popularity exploded when it was picked up by
contemporary politicians. When the incumbent president Martin Van
Buren was up for reelection, his Democratic supporters organized a
band of thugs to influence voters. This group was formally called the
"O.K. Club," which referred both to Van Buren's nickname "Old
Kinderhook" (based on his hometown of Kinderhook, New York), and to
the term recently made popular in the papers. At the same time, the
opposing Whig Party made use of "OK" to denigrate Van Buren's
political mentor Andrew Jackson. According to the Whigs, Jackson
invented the abbreviation "OK" to cover up his own misspelling of "all
correct."

The man responsible for unraveling the mystery behind "OK" was an
American linguist named Allen Walker Read. An English professor at
Columbia University, Read dispelled a host of erroneous theories on
the origins of "OK," ranging from the name of a popular Army biscuit
(Orrin Kendall) to the name of a Haitian port famed for its rum (Aux
Cayes) to the signature of a Choctaw chief named Old Keokuk. Whatever
its origins, "OK" has become one of the most ubiquitous terms in the
world, and certainly one of America's greatest lingual exports.

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General Interest
1839 : OK enters national vernacular
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52369
1775 : Patrick Henry voices American opposition to British policy
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4856
1919 : Mussolini founds the Fascist party
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4857
1983 : Artificial-heart patient dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6845
1994 : Leading Mexican presidential candidate assassinated
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4858

Automotive
1909 : Maybach designs new brake
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7327
1956 : Studebaker-Packard looks for a merger
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7326

Civil War
1862 : Battle of Kernstown, Virginia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2144

Cold War
1983 : Reagan calls for new antimissile technology
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2615

Crime
1979 : Two men sentenced in murder of former Chilean diplomat
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=947

Disaster
1913 : Tornadoes devastate Nebraska
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=381

Entertainment
1940 : First episode of Truth or Consequences
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3097
1950 : Olivia de Havilland wins Oscar
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3098
1964 : Peter Lorre dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3099

Literary
1999 : Thomas Harris delivers Hannibal manuscript
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3916

Old West
1806 : Lewis and Clark depart Fort Clatsop
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4467

Presidential
1962 : Jackie Kennedy receives horse from governor of Pakistan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=287

Sports
1994 : Wayne Gretzky scores number 802
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56977

Vietnam War
1961 : U.S. plane shot down over Laos
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1746
1970 : Prince Sihanouk issues a call for arms
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1745

Wall Street
1836 : U.S. Mint gets modern
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5791
1983 : Democrats rain on Reagan's parade
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5790

World War I
1918 : Paris hit by shells from new German gun
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=350

World War II
1944 : Germans slaughter Italian civilians
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6751

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[#] Sun Mar 23 2008 06:32:07 EDT from IGnatius T Foobar @ Uncensored

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

That's the first time I've ever seen "OK" written up as having been a reference to anything other than the OK Corral.

[#] Sun Mar 23 2008 09:43:54 EDT from Freakdog @ Dog Pound BBS II

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

I've always wondered about the origins of that "word"...very interesting.

[#] Sun Mar 23 2008 22:01:39 EDT from IGnatius T Foobar @ Uncensored

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

Not only that, but the idea of deliberately spelling words incorrectly just to be silly ... boy was I born in the wrong era!

[#] Mon Mar 24 2008 06:02:57 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Exxon Valdez runs aground

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March 24: General Interest
1989 : Exxon Valdez runs aground

The worst oil spill in U.S. territory begins when the supertanker
Exxon Valdez, owned and operated by the Exxon Corporation, runs
aground on a reef in Prince William Sound in southern Alaska. An
estimated 11 million gallons of oil eventually spilled into the water.
Attempts to contain the massive spill were unsuccessful, and wind and
currents spread the oil more than 100 miles from its source,
eventually polluting more than 700 miles of coastline. Hundreds of
thousands of birds and animals were adversely affected by the
environmental disaster.

It was later revealed that Joseph Hazelwood, the captain of the
Valdez, was drinking at the time of the accident and allowed an
uncertified officer to steer the massive vessel. In March 1990,
Hazelwood was convicted of misdemeanor negligence, fined $50,000, and
ordered to perform 1,000 hours of community service. In July 1992, an
Alaska court overturned Hazelwood's conviction, citing a federal
statute that grants freedom from prosecution to those who report an
oil spill.

Exxon itself was condemned by the National Transportation Safety Board
and in early 1991 agreed under pressure from environmental groups to
pay a penalty of $100 million and provide $1 billion over a 10-year
period for the cost of the cleanup. However, later in the year, both
Alaska and Exxon rejected the agreement, and in October 1991 the oil
giant settled the matter by paying $25 million, less than 4 percent of
the cleanup aid promised by Exxon earlier that year.

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Valdez oil spill

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General Interest
1989 : Exxon Valdez runs aground
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=4860
1603 : Queen Elizabeth I dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4859
1996 : Shannon Lucid enters Mir
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4861
1999 : NATO bombs Yugoslavia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6846

American Revolution
1765 : Parliament passes the Quartering Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=320

Automotive
1954 : AMC is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7328

Civil War
1862 : Wendall Phillips booed in Cincinnati
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2145

Cold War
1977 : United States and Cuba engage in direct negotiations
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2616

Crime
1998 : A school shooting in Jonesboro, Arkansas, kills five
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=948

Disaster
1989 : Exxon Valdez runs aground in Alaska
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=382

Entertainment
1934 : Major Bowes Original Amateur Hour kicks off craze
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3101
1939 : Basil Rathbone debuts as Sherlock Holmes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3102
1945 : Billboard's first Top Album chart published
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3103
1958 : Elvis joins the army
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3104
1980 : Nightline debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3100

Literary
1955 : Cat on a Hot Tin Roof opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3917

Old West
1834 : John Wesley Powell born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4468

Presidential
1949 : Truman signs off on aid to Palestine
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=288

Sports
1976 : Peyton Manning born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56978

Vietnam War
1965 : First teach-in conducted
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1748
1975 : North Vietnamese launch "Ho Chi Minh Campaign"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1747

Wall Street
1890 : Supreme Court makes surprise decision
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5793
1900 : Carnegie incorporates
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5792

World War I
1918 : German forces cross the Somme River
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=351

World War II
1944 : Wingate dies in Burma
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6752

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[#] Tue Mar 25 2008 06:09:27 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Triangle Shirtwaist Fire in New York City

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March 25: General Interest
1911 : Triangle Shirtwaist Fire in New York City

In one of the darkest moments of America's industrial history, the
Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory in New York City burns down,
killing 145 workers, on this day in 1911. The tragedy led to the
development of a series of laws and regulations that better protected
the safety of factory workers.

The Triangle factory, owned by Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, was
located in the top three floors of the 10-story Asch Building in
downtown Manhattan. It was a sweatshop in every sense of the word: a
cramped space lined with work stations and packed with poor immigrant
workers, mostly teenaged women who did not speak English. At the time
of the fire, there were four elevators with access to the factory
floors, but only one was fully operational and it could hold only 12
people at a time. There were two stairways down to the street, but one
was locked from the outside to prevent theft by the workers and the
other opened inward only. The fire escape, as all would come to see,
was shoddily constructed, and could not support the weight of more
than a few women at a time.

Blanck and Harris already had a suspicious history of factory fires.
The Triangle factory was twice scorched in 1902, while their Diamond
Waist Company factory burned twice, in 1907 and in 1910. It seems that
Blanck and Harris deliberately torched their workplaces before
business hours in order to collect on the large fire-insurance
policies they purchased, a not uncommon practice in the early 20th
century. While this was not the cause of the 1911 fire, it contributed
to the tragedy, as Blanck and Harris refused to install sprinkler
systems and take other safety measures in case they needed to burn
down their shops again.

Added to this delinquency were Blanck and Harris' notorious
anti-worker policies. Their employees were paid a mere $15 a week,
despite working 12 hours a day, every day. When the International
Ladies Garment Workers Union led a strike in 1909 demanding higher pay
and shorter and more predictable hours, Blanck and Harris' company was
one of the few manufacturers who resisted, hiring police as thugs to
imprison the striking women, and paying off politicians to look the
other way.

On March 25, a Saturday afternoon, there were 600 workers at the
factory when a fire broke out in a rag bin on the eighth floor. The
manager turned the fire hose on it, but the hose was rotted and its
valve was rusted shut. Panic ensued as the workers fled to every exit.
The elevator broke down after only four trips, and women began jumping
down the shaft to their deaths. Those who fled down the wrong set of
stairs were trapped inside and burned alive. Other women trapped on
the eighth floor began jumping out the windows, which created a
problem for the firefighters whose hoses were crushed by falling
bodies. Also, the firefighters' ladders stretched only as high as the
seventh floor, and their safety nets were not strong enough to catch
the women, who were jumping three at a time.

Blanck and Harris were on the building's top floor with some workers
when the fire broke out. They were able to escape by climbing onto the
roof and hopping to an adjoining building.

The fire was out within half an hour, but not before 49 workers had
been killed by the fire, and another 100 or so were piled up dead in
the elevator shaft or on the sidewalk. The workers' union organized a
march on April 5 to protest the conditions that led to the fire; it
was attended by 80,000 people.

Though Blanck and Harris were put on trial for manslaughter, they
managed to get off scot-free. Still, the massacre for which they were
responsible did finally compel the city to enact reform. In addition
to the Sullivan-Hoey Fire Prevention Law passed that October, the New
York Democratic set took up the cause of the worker and became known
as a reform party.

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WWII DVD Sale: Save on Great Titles

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General Interest
1911 : Triangle Shirtwaist Fire in New York City
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52370
1634 : The settlement of Maryland
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4862
1957 : Common Market founded
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6847
1975 : King Faisal assassinated
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4863
1994 : Last U.S. troops depart Somalia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4864

American Revolution
1774 : Parliament passes the Boston Port Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=321

Automotive
1901 : Mercedes debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7329
1920 : Chrysler leaves GM
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7330

Civil War
1865 : Battle of Fort Stedman, Virginia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2146

Cold War
1946 : Soviets announce withdrawal from Iran
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2617

Crime
1932 : Verdict is announced in Scottsboro case
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=949

Disaster
1911 : Fire kills 145 at Triangle Shirtwaist factory
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=383

Entertainment
1932 : Tarzan opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3106
1955 : Blackboard Jungle film released
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3107
1957 : Ricky Nelson records first hits
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3105

Literary
1955 : U.S. Customs seizes Howl
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3918

Old West
1879 : Cheyenne Chief Little Wolf surrenders
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4469

Presidential
1933 : USS Sequoia becomes presidential yacht
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=289

Sports
1958 : Sugar Ray defeats Basilio for middleweight title
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56979

Vietnam War
1967 : Martin Luther King leads march against the war
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1750
1968 : Johnson meets with the "Wise Men"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1749

Wall Street
1911 : Tragedy hits Triangle Shirtwaist factory
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5794
1998 : Gates' stalker heads to the slammer
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5795

World War I
1918 : Belarusian Peoples' Republic established
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=352

World War II
1941 : Yugoslavia joins the Axis
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6753

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[#] Wed Mar 26 2008 06:06:02 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Israel-Egyptian peace agreement signed

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March 26: General Interest
1979 : Israel-Egyptian peace agreement signed

In a ceremony at the White House, Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat
and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin sign a historic peace
agreement, ending three decades of hostilities between Egypt and
Israel and establishing diplomatic and commercial ties.

Less than two years earlier, in an unprecedented move for an Arab
leader, Sadat traveled to Jerusalem, Israel, to seek a permanent peace
settlement with Egypt's Jewish neighbor after decades of conflict.
Sadat's visit, in which he met with Begin and spoke before Israel's
parliament, was met with outrage in most of the Arab world. Despite
criticism from Egypt's regional allies, Sadat continued to pursue
peace with Begin, and in September 1978 the two leaders met again in
the United States, where they negotiated an agreement with U.S.
President Jimmy Carter at Camp David, Maryland. The Camp David
Accords, the first peace agreement between the state of Israel and one
of its Arab neighbors, laid the groundwork for diplomatic and
commercial relations. Seven months later, a formal peace treaty was
signed.

For their achievement, Sadat and Begin were jointly awarded the 1978
Nobel Prize for Peace. Sadat's peace efforts were not so highly
acclaimed in the Arab world--Egypt was suspended from the Arab League,
and on October 6, 1981, Muslim extremists assassinated Sadat in Cairo.
Nevertheless, the peace process continued without Sadat, and in 1982
Egypt formally established diplomatic relations with Israel.

history.com/tdih.do

View Our Selections on The Middle East

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General Interest
1979 : Israel-Egyptian peace agreement signed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=4865
1953 : Salk announces polio vaccine
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6848
1997 : Heaven's Gate cult members found dead
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4866

American Revolution
1776 : South Carolina approves new constitution
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=322

Automotive
1932 : Auto legend passes away
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7331
1984 : Ford Escort sets record
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7332
1989 : Yeltsin beats out auto maker
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7333

Civil War
1864 : McPherson takes over the Army of the Tennessee
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2147

Cold War
1950 : McCarthy charges that Owen Lattimore is a Soviet spy
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2618

Crime
1987 : Torture chamber uncovered in Philadelphia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=950

Disaster
1872 : Deadly earthquake hits California
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=384

Entertainment
1885 : First movie film made
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3109
1937 : Popeye monument unveiled
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3110
1947 : Pot O' Gold's last episode
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3108
1970 : Woodstock documentary premieres
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3111

Literary
1920 : F. Scott Fitzgerald's first novel published
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3919

Old West
1832 : The steamboat Yellowstone heads for Montana
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4470

Presidential
1804 : Jefferson presented with a "mammoth loaf" of bread
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=290

Sports
1979 : Michigan State defeats Indiana State in NCAA championship
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56980

Vietnam War
1969 : Antiwar demonstration in Washington
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1752
1975 : Hue falls to the communists
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1751

Wall Street
1998 : Changing of the guard at Intel
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5796

World War I
1917 : First Battle of Gaza
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=353

World War II
1941 : Naval warfare gets new weapon
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6754


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[#] Thu Mar 27 2008 06:01:53 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: FDA approves Viagra

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March 27: General Interest
1998 : FDA approves Viagra

On this day in 1998, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves
use of the drug Viagra, an oral medication that treats impotence.

Sildenafil, the chemical name for Viagra, is an artificial compound
that was originally synthesized and studied to treat hypertension
(high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (a form of cardiovascular
disease). Chemists at the Pfizer pharmaceutical company found,
however, that while the drug had little effect on angina, it could
induce penile erections. The reaction took about an hour, a little
longer if the pill was taken after eating fatty foods. Seeing the
economic opportunity in such a biochemical effect, Pfizer decided to
market the drug for impotence. Sildenafil was patented in 1996, and a
mere two years later--a stunningly short time compared to other
drugs--it was approved by the FDA for use in treating "erectile
dysfunction," the new clinical name for impotence. Though unconfirmed,
it is believed the drug was invented by Peter Dunn and Albert Wood.

Viagra's massive success was practically instantaneous. In the first
year alone, the $8-$10 pills yielded about a billion dollars in sales.
Viagra's impact on the pharmaceutical and medical industries, as well
as on the public consciousness, was also enormous. Though available by
prescription only, Viagra was marketed on television, famously touted
by ex-presidential candidate Bob Dole, then in his mid-70s. Such
direct-to-consumer marketing was practically unprecedented for
prescription drugs (now, sales and marketing account for approximately
30 percent of the pharmaceutical industry's costs, in some cases more
than research and development). The drug was also offered over the
internet--customers needed only to fill out an "online consultation"
to receive samples.

An estimated 30 million men in the United States suffer from erectile
dysfunction and a wave of new Viagra competitors, among them Cialis
(tadalafil) and Levitra (vardenafil), has blown open the market. Drug
companies are now not just targeting older men like Dole, but men in
their 30s and 40s, too. As with many drugs, the long-term effects of
Viagra on men's health are still unclear (Viagra does carry warnings
for those who suffer from heart trouble), but its popularity shows no
signs of slowing. To date, over 20 million Americans have tried it,
and that number is sure to increase as the baby boomer population
continues to age.

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Modern Marvels: High Tech Sex DVD: Find out about Ancient Egyptian
aids, Viagra and the secret history of Lysol

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General Interest
1998 : FDA approves Viagra
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52371
1912 : Japanese cherry trees planted along the Potomac
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4867
1958 : Khrushchev becomes Soviet premier
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6849
1964 : Earthquake rocks Alaska
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4868

American Revolution
1775 : Jefferson elected to the Continental Congress
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=323

Automotive
1925 : MG prototype is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7335
1939 : NASCAR giant is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7334

Civil War
1865 : Lincoln, Sherman, and Grant meet
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2148

Cold War
1990 : TV Marti begins broadcasting to Cuba
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2619

Crime
1905 : Fingerprint evidence is used to solve a British murder case
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=951

Disaster
1977 : Jumbo jets collide at Canary Islands airport
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=385

Entertainment
1940 : Rebecca opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3113
1942 : Last episode of Myrt and Marge
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3114
1952 : Singin' in the Rain opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3112

Literary
1923 : Poet Louis Simpson born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3920

Old West
1836 : Mexicans execute defenders of Goliad
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4471

Presidential
1829 : Jackson appoints John Eaton as secretary of war and starts scandal
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=291

Sports
1939 : March Madness is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56981

Vietnam War
1965 : South Vietnamese forces conduct combat operations in Cambodia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1754
1973 : Bombing of Cambodia to continue
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1753

Wall Street
1836 : Father of automotive luxury is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5797

World War I
1918 : Bessarabia annexed by Romania
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=354

World War II
1945 : Germans launch last of their V-2s
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6755

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[#] Fri Mar 28 2008 06:01:33 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

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March 28: General Interest
1979 : Nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

At 4 a.m. on March 28, 1979, the worst accident in the history of the
U.S. nuclear power industry begins when a pressure valve in the Unit-2
reactor at Three Mile Island fails to close. Cooling water,
contaminated with radiation, drained from the open valve into
adjoining buildings, and the core began to dangerously overheat.

The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant was built in 1974 on a
sandbar on Pennsylvania's Susquehanna River, just 10 miles downstream
from the state capitol in Harrisburg. In 1978, a second
state-of-the-art reactor began operating on Three Mile Island, which
was lauded for generating affordable and reliable energy in a time of
energy crises.

After the cooling water began to drain out of the broken pressure
valve on the morning of March 28, 1979, emergency cooling pumps
automatically went into operation. Left alone, these safety devices
would have prevented the development of a larger crisis. However,
human operators in the control room misread confusing and
contradictory readings and shut off the emergency water system. The
reactor was also shut down, but residual heat from the fission process
was still being released. By early morning, the core had heated to
over 4,000 degrees, just 1,000 degrees short of meltdown. In the
meltdown scenario, the core melts, and deadly radiation drifts across
the countryside, fatally sickening a potentially great number of
people.

As the plant operators struggled to understand what had happened, the
contaminated water was releasing radioactive gases throughout the
plant. The radiation levels, though not immediately life-threatening,
were dangerous, and the core cooked further as the contaminated water
was contained and precautions were taken to protect the operators.
Shortly after 8 a.m., word of the accident leaked to the outside
world. The plant's parent company, Metropolitan Edison, downplayed the
crisis and claimed that no radiation had been detected off plant
grounds, but the same day inspectors detected slightly increased
levels of radiation nearby as a result of the contaminated water leak.
Pennsylvania Governor Dick Thornburgh considered calling an
evacuation.

Finally, at about 8 p.m., plant operators realized they needed to get
water moving through the core again and restarted the pumps. The
temperature began to drop, and pressure in the reactor was reduced.
The reactor had come within less than an hour of a complete meltdown.
More than half the core was destroyed or molten, but it had not broken
its protective shell, and no radiation was escaping. The crisis was
apparently over.

Two days later, however, on March 30, a bubble of highly flammable
hydrogen gas was discovered within the reactor building. The bubble of
gas was created two days before when exposed core materials reacted
with super-heated steam. On March 28, some of this gas had exploded,
releasing a small amount of radiation into the atmosphere. At that
time, plant operators had not registered the explosion, which sounded
like a ventilation door closing. After the radiation leak was
discovered on March 30, residents were advised to stay indoors.
Experts were uncertain if the hydrogen bubble would create further
meltdown or possibly a giant explosion, and as a precaution Governor
Thornburgh advised "pregnant women and pre-school age children to
leave the area within a five-mile radius of the Three Mile Island
facility until further notice." This led to the panic the governor had
hoped to avoid; within days, more than 100,000 people had fled
surrounding towns.

On April 1, President Jimmy Carter arrived at Three Mile Island to
inspect the plant. Carter, a trained nuclear engineer, had helped
dismantle a damaged Canadian nuclear reactor while serving in the U.S.
Navy. His visit achieved its aim of calming local residents and the
nation. That afternoon, experts agreed that the hydrogen bubble was
not in danger of exploding. Slowly, the hydrogen was bled from the
system as the reactor cooled.

At the height of the crisis, plant workers were exposed to unhealthy
levels of radiation, but no one outside Three Mile Island had their
health adversely affected by the accident. Nonetheless, the incident
greatly eroded the public's faith in nuclear power. The unharmed
Unit-1 reactor at Three Mile Island, which was shut down during the
crisis, did not resume operation until 1985. Cleanup continued on
Unit-2 until 1990, but it was too damaged to be rendered usable again.
In the more than two decades since the accident at Three Mile Island,
not a single new nuclear power plant has been ordered in the United
States.

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General Interest
1979 : Nuclear accident at Three Mile Island
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=6850
1939 : Spanish Civil War ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4869
1969 : Eisenhower dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4870

American Revolution
1774 : British Parliament adopts the Coercive Acts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=324

Automotive
1892 : Contract signed for gas-powered auto
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7337
1900 : Brits invest in an auto
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7338
1941 : Ford builds new plant
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7336

Civil War
1862 : Battle of Glorieta Pass
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2149

Cold War
1946 : Acheson-Lilienthal Report released
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2620

Crime
1814 : Funeral held for the man behind the guillotine
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=952
2006 : Duke lacrosse team suspended following sexual assault allegations
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57213

Disaster
1979 : Reactor overheats at Three Mile Island
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=386

Entertainment
1920 : Fairbanks & Pickford marry
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3115
1947 : Last episode of Buck Rogers radio program
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3116
1964 : Beatles break Elvis' record of consecutive hits
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3117

Literary
1936 : Mario Vargas Llosa, Peruvian novelist, is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3921

Old West
1776 : De Anza founds San Francisco
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4472

Presidential
1834 : Congress censures Jackson
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=292

Sports
1984 : Baltimore Colts move to Indianapolis
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56982

Vietnam War
1961 : Diem's popular support questioned
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1755
1967 : American pacifists arrive in Haiphong
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1756

Wall Street
1834 : Senate takes Jackson to task
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5798

World War I
1915 : First American citizen killed during WWI
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=355

World War II
1941 : Cunningham leads fateful British strike at Italians
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6756

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[#] Sat Mar 29 2008 06:02:52 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: U.S. withdraws from Vietnam

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March 29: General Interest
1973 : U.S. withdraws from Vietnam

Two months after the signing of the Vietnam peace agreement, the last
U.S. combat troops leave South Vietnam as Hanoi frees the remaining
American prisoners of war held in North Vietnam. America's direct
eight-year intervention in the Vietnam War was at an end. In Saigon,
some 7,000 U.S. Department of Defense civilian employees remained
behind to aid South Vietnam in conducting what looked to be a fierce
and ongoing war with communist North Vietnam.

In 1961, after two decades of indirect military aid, U.S. President
John F. Kennedy sent the first large force of U.S. military personnel
to Vietnam to bolster the ineffectual autocratic regime of South
Vietnam against the communist North. Three years later, with the South
Vietnamese government crumbling, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered
limited bombing raids on North Vietnam, and Congress authorized the
use of U.S. troops. By 1965, North Vietnamese offensives left
President Johnson with two choices: escalate U.S. involvement or
withdraw. Johnson ordered the former, and troop levels soon jumped to
more than 300,000 as U.S. air forces commenced the largest bombing
campaign in history.

During the next few years, the extended length of the war, the high
number of U.S. casualties, and the exposure of U.S. involvement in war
crimes, such as the massacre at My Lai, helped turn many in the United
States against the Vietnam War. The communists' Tet Offensive of 1968
crushed U.S. hopes of an imminent end to the conflict and galvanized
U.S. opposition to the war. In response, Johnson announced in March
1968 that he would not seek reelection, citing what he perceived to be
his responsibility in creating a perilous national division over
Vietnam. He also authorized the beginning of peace talks.

In the spring of 1969, as protests against the war escalated in the
United States, U.S. troop strength in the war-torn country reached its
peak at nearly 550,000 men. Richard Nixon, the new U.S. president,
began U.S. troop withdrawal and "Vietnamization" of the war effort
that year, but he intensified bombing. Large U.S. troop withdrawals
continued in the early 1970s as President Nixon expanded air and
ground operations into Cambodia and Laos in attempts to block enemy
supply routes along Vietnam's borders. This expansion of the war,
which accomplished few positive results, led to new waves of protests
in the United States and elsewhere.

Finally, in January 1973, representatives of the United States, North
and South Vietnam, and the Vietcong signed a peace agreement in Paris,
ending the direct U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War. Its
key provisions included a cease-fire throughout Vietnam, the
withdrawal of U.S. forces, the release of prisoners of war, and the
reunification of North and South Vietnam through peaceful means. The
South Vietnamese government was to remain in place until new elections
were held, and North Vietnamese forces in the South were not to
advance further nor be reinforced.

In reality, however, the agreement was little more than a face-saving
gesture by the U.S. government. Even before the last American troops
departed on March 29, the communists violated the cease-fire, and by
early 1974 full-scale war had resumed. At the end of 1974, South
Vietnamese authorities reported that 80,000 of their soldiers and
civilians had been killed in fighting during the year, making it the
most costly of the Vietnam War.

On April 30, 1975, the last few Americans still in South Vietnam were
airlifted out of the country as Saigon fell to communist forces. North
Vietnamese Colonel Bui Tin, accepting the surrender of South Vietnam
later in the day, remarked, "You have nothing to fear; between
Vietnamese there are no victors and no vanquished. Only the Americans
have been defeated." The Vietnam War was the longest and most
unpopular foreign war in U.S. history and cost 58,000 American lives.
As many as two million Vietnamese soldiers and civilians were killed.

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General Interest
1973 : U.S. withdraws from Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=6851
1879 : British victory at Kambula
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4871
1974 : Mariner 10 visits Mercury
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4872

American Revolution
1776 : Putnam named commander of New York troops
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=325

Automotive
1806 : Treasury funds first highway
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7339
1919 : First Tatra is completed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7341
1927 : 200mph barrier is broken
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7340

Civil War
1865 : Appomattox campaign begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2150

Cold War
1951 : Rosenbergs convicted of espionage
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2621

Crime
1950 : The Mad Bomber strikes in New York
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=953

Disaster
1982 : Earthquake and volcano do double damage in Mexico
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=387

Entertainment
1939 : Clark Gable & Carole Lombard marry
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3118
1949 : I'd Like to See's final episode
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3119
1971 : Filming begins on The Godfather
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3120
1990 : Warning label on records
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3121

Literary
1797 : Writer Mary Wollstonecraft marries William Godwin
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3922

Old West
1806 : Congress authorizes survey of Cumberland Road
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4473

Presidential
1790 : John Tyler is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=293
1929 : Herbert Hoover has telephone installed in Oval Office
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=294

Sports
1982 : Tar Heels win NCAA basketball championship
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56983

Vietnam War
1971 : Calley found guilty of My Lai murders
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1757
1973 : Last U.S. troops depart South Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1758

Wall Street
1996 : Wall Street feels the power
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5799

World War I
1917 : Swedish prime minister resigns over WWI policy
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=356

World War II
1945 : Patton takes Frankfurt
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6757

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[#] Sun Mar 30 2008 06:03:09 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: President Reagan shot

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March 30: General Interest
1981 : President Reagan shot

On March 30, 1981, President Ronald Reagan is shot in the chest
outside a Washington, D.C., hotel by a deranged drifter named John
Hinckley Jr.

The president had just finished addressing a labor meeting at the
Washington Hilton Hotel and was walking with his entourage to his
limousine when Hinckley, standing among a group of reporters, fired
six shots at the president, hitting Reagan and three of his
attendants. White House Press Secretary James Brady was shot in the
head and critically wounded, Secret Service agent Timothy McCarthy was
shot in the side, and District of Columbia policeman Thomas Delahaney
was shot in the neck. After firing the shots, Hinckley was overpowered
and pinned against a wall, and President Reagan, apparently unaware
that he'd been shot, was shoved into his limousine by a Secret Service
agent and rushed to the hospital.

The president was shot in the left lung, and the .22 caliber bullet
just missed his heart. In an impressive feat for a 70-year-old man
with a collapsed lung, he walked into George Washington University
Hospital under his own power. As he was treated and prepared for
surgery, he was in good spirits and quipped to his wife, Nancy,
''Honey, I forgot to duck,'' and to his surgeons, "Please tell me
you're Republicans." Reagan's surgery lasted two hours, and he was
listed in stable and good condition afterward.

The next day, the president resumed some of his executive duties and
signed a piece of legislation from his hospital bed. On April 11, he
returned to the White House. Reagan's popularity soared after the
assassination attempt, and at the end of April he was given a hero's
welcome by Congress. In August, this same Congress passed his
controversial economic program, with several Democrats breaking ranks
to back Reagan's plan. By this time, Reagan claimed to be fully
recovered from the assassination attempt. In private, however, he
would continue to feel the effects of the nearly fatal gunshot wound
for years.

Of the victims of the assassination attempt, Secret Service agent
Timothy McCarthy and D.C. policeman Thomas Delahaney eventually
recovered. James Brady, who nearly died after being shot in the eye,
suffered permanent brain damage. He later became an advocate of gun
control, and in 1993 Congress passed the "Brady Bill," which
established a five-day waiting period and background checks for
prospective gun buyers. President Bill Clinton signed the bill into
law.

After being arrested on March 30, 1981, 25-year-old John Hinckley was
booked on federal charges of attempting to assassinate the president.
He had previously been arrested in Tennessee on weapons charges. In
June 1982, he was found not guilty by reason of insanity. In the
trial, Hinckley's defense attorneys argued that their client was ill
with narcissistic personality disorder, citing medical evidence, and
had a pathological obsession with the 1976 film Taxi Driver, in which
the main character attempts to assassinate a fictional senator. His
lawyers claimed that Hinckley saw the movie more than a dozen times,
was obsessed with the lead actress, Jodie Foster, and had attempted to
reenact the events of the film in his own life. Thus the movie, not
Hinckley, they argued, was the actual planning force behind the events
that occurred on March 30, 1981.

The verdict of "not guilty by reason of insanity" aroused widespread
public criticism, and many were shocked that a would-be presidential
assassin could avoid been held accountable for his crime. However,
because of his obvious threat to society, he was placed in St.
Elizabeth's Hospital, a mental institution. In the late 1990s,
Hinckley's attorney began arguing that his mental illness was in
remission and thus had a right to return to a normal life. Beginning
in August 1999, he was allowed supervised day trips off the hospital
grounds and later was allowed to visit his parents once a week
unsupervised. The Secret Service voluntarily monitors him during these
outings. If his mental illness remains in remission, he may one day be
released.

history.com/tdih.do

Must Watch: The Plot To Kill Ronald Reagan DVD

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General Interest
1981 : President Reagan shot
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=6852
1814 : Allies capture Paris
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4873
1855 : Violence disrupts first Kansas election
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4874
1867 : Seward's Folly
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4875
1870 : 15th Amendment adopted
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4876

American Revolution
1775 : King George endorses New England Restraining Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=326

Automotive
1947 : Tucker announces car concept
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7342

Civil War
1825 : Samuel Bell Maxey born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2151

Cold War
1948 : Henry Wallace criticizes Truman's Cold War policies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2622

Crime
1981 : Ronald Reagan is shot by John Hinckley, Jr.
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=954

Disaster
1980 : Oil workers drown in North Sea
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=388

Entertainment
1946 : Academy Award radio show begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3122
1962 : Jack Paar says goodnight to The Tonight Show
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3123
1994 : First episode of Ellen
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3124

Literary
1820 : Anna Sewell, author of Black Beauty, is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3923

Old West
1891 : "Sockless" Simpson rallies populist farmers
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4474

Presidential
1981 : Reagan is shot
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=295

Sports
1965 : Bill Bradley scores 58 points for Princeton
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56984

Vietnam War
1965 : Bomb explodes outside U.S. Embassy in Saigon
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1760
1972 : North Vietnamese launch Nguyen Hue Offensive
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1759

Wall Street
1824 : Clay stands by his tariff
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5800
1867 : U.S. buys Alaska
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5801

World War I
1918 : Allied troops halt Germans at Moreuil Wood
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=357

World War II
1940 : Japanese set up puppet regime at Nanking
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6758

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[#] Mon Mar 31 2008 06:02:27 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Eiffel Tower opens

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March 31: General Interest
1889 : Eiffel Tower opens

On March 31, 1889, the Eiffel Tower is dedicated in Paris in a
ceremony presided over by Gustave Eiffel, the tower's designer, and
attended by French Prime Minister Pierre Tirard, a handful of other
dignitaries, and 200 construction workers.

In 1889, to honor of the centenary of the French Revolution, the
French government planned an international exposition and announced a
design competition for a monument to be built on the Champ-de-Mars in
central Paris. Out of more than 100 designs submitted, the Centennial
Committee chose Eiffel's plan of an open-lattice wrought-iron tower
that would reach almost 1,000 feet above Paris and be the world's
tallest man-made structure. Eiffel, a noted bridge builder, was a
master of metal construction and designed the framework of the Statue
of Liberty that had recently been erected in New York Harbor.

Eiffel's tower was greeted with skepticism from critics who argued
that it would be structurally unsound, and indignation from others who
thought it would be an eyesore in the heart of Paris. Unperturbed,
Eiffel completed his great tower under budget in just two years. Only
one worker lost his life during construction, which at the time was a
remarkably low casualty number for a project of that magnitude. The
light, airy structure was by all accounts a technological wonder and
within a few decades came to be regarded as an architectural
masterpiece.

The Eiffel Tower is 984 feet tall and consists of an iron framework
supported on four masonry piers, from which rise four columns that
unite to form a single vertical tower. Platforms, each with an
observation deck, are at three levels. Elevators ascend the piers on a
curve, and Eiffel contracted the Otis Elevator Company of the United
States to design the tower's famous glass-cage elevators.

The elevators were not completed by March 31, 1889, however, so
Gustave Eiffel ascended the tower's stairs with a few hardy companions
and raised an enormous French tricolor on the structure's flagpole.
Fireworks were then set off from the second platform. Eiffel and his
party descended, and the architect addressed the guests and about 200
workers. In early May, the Paris International Exposition opened, and
the tower served as the entrance gateway to the giant fair.

The Eiffel Tower remained the world's tallest man-made structure until
the completion of the Chrysler Building in New York in 1930.
Incredibly, the Eiffel Tower was almost demolished when the
International Exposition's 20-year lease on the land expired in 1909,
but its value as an antenna for radio transmission saved it. It
remains largely unchanged today and is one of the world's premier
tourist attractions.

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General Interest
1889 : Eiffel Tower opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=6853
1492 : Jews to be expelled from Spain
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4877
1854 : Treaty of Kanagawa signed with Japan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4878
1959 : Dalai Lama begins exile
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4879

American Revolution
1776 : Abigail Adams urges husband to "remember the ladies"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=327

Automotive
1900 : First car ad runs
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7345
1931 : Studebaker namesake dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7344
1956 : Dust, death, and DePalma
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7343

Civil War
1865 : Fighting at White Oak Road and Dinwiddie Court House
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2152

Cold War
1991 : Warsaw Pact ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2623

Crime
1999 : Evidence of murder is uncovered in New Mexico
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=955

Disaster
1973 : Mississippi River reaches peak flood level
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=389

Entertainment
1930 : Production Code introduced
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3125
1970 : Discrimination banned in Hollywood
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3126
1973 : Nixon awards Medal of Freedom to John Ford
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3127
1992 : Dateline NBC premieres
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3128

Literary
1836 : First installment of The Pickwick Papers, Dickens' first novel
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3924

Old West
1895 : Western novelist Vardis Fisher born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4475

Presidential
1776 : Abigail Adams asks her husband to "remember the ladies"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=296

Sports
1995 : Longest strike in Major League Baseball history ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56985

Vietnam War
1965 : Johnson publicly denies actions contemplated in Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1762
1968 : Johnson announces bombing halt
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1763
1972 : Fighting intensifies with North Vietnamese offensive
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1761

Wall Street
1840 : Martin Van Buren enacts ten-hour day
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5803
1998 : Smith Barney sees red over blue materials
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5802

World War I
1905 : The First Moroccan Crisis
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=358

World War II
1940 : Germany's Atlantis launches
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6759

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[#] Tue Apr 01 2008 06:02:35 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: April Fools tradition popularized

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April 1: General Interest
1700 : April Fools tradition popularized

On this day in 1700, English pranksters begin popularizing the annual
tradition of April Fools' Day by playing practical jokes on each
other.

Although the day, also called All Fools' Day, has been celebrated for
several centuries by different cultures, its exact origins remain a
mystery. Some historians speculate that April Fools' Day dates back to
1582, when France switched from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian
calendar, as called for by the Council of Trent in 1563. People who
were slow to get the news or failed to recognize that the start of the
new year had moved to January 1 and continued to celebrate it during
the last week of March through April 1 became the butt of jokes and
hoaxes. These included having paper fish placed on their backs and
being referred to as "poisson d'avril" (April fish), said to symbolize
a young, easily caught fish and a gullible person.

Historians have also linked April Fools' Day to ancient festivals such
as Hilaria, which was celebrated in Rome at the end of March and
involved people dressing up in disguises. There's also speculation
that April Fools' Day was tied to the vernal equinox, or first day of
spring in the Northern Hemisphere, when Mother Nature fooled people
with changing, unpredictable weather.

April Fools' Day spread throughout Britain during the 18th century. In
Scotland, the tradition became a two-day event, starting with "hunting
the gowk," in which people were sent on phony errands (gowk is a word
for cuckoo bird, a symbol for fool) and followed by Tailie Day, which
involved pranks played on people's derrieres, such as pinning fake
tails or "kick me" signs on them.

In modern times, people have gone to great lengths to create elaborate
April Fools' Day hoaxes. Newspapers, radio and TV stations and Web
sites have participated in the April 1 tradition of reporting
outrageous fictional claims that have fooled their audiences. In 1957,
the BBC reported that Swiss farmers were experiencing a record
spaghetti crop and showed footage of people harvesting noodles from
trees; numerous viewers were fooled. In 1985, Sports Illustrated
tricked many of its readers when it ran a made-up article about a
rookie pitcher named Sidd Finch who could throw a fastball over 168
miles per hour. In 1996, Taco Bell, the fast-food restaurant chain,
duped people when it announced it had agreed to purchase
Philadelphia's Liberty Bell and intended to rename it the Taco Liberty
Bell. In 1998, after Burger King advertised a "Left-Handed Whopper,"
scores of clueless customers requested the fake sandwich.

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General Interest
1700 : April Fools tradition popularized
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52584
1621 : The Pilgrim-Wampanoag peace treaty
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4880
1918 : RAF founded
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6854
1924 : Hitler sent to Landsberg jail
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4881

American Revolution
1789 : First U.S. House of Representatives elects speaker
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=449

Automotive
1970 : Gremlin is introduced
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7346
1993 : Winston Cup champion dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7347

Civil War
1865 : Battle of Five Forks
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2153
1865 : Florida Governor commits suicide
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2154

Cold War
1948 : Soviets stop U.S. and British military trains
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2624

Crime
1800 : Weeks' trial sheds light on early procedure
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=960
1924 : Beer Hall Putsch secures Hitler's rise to power
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=959

Disaster
1946 : Alaskan earthquake triggers massive tsunami
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=390

Entertainment
1916 : Lewis Selznick Pictures founded
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3129
1935 : First metal radio tube
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3130
1949 : First African-American variety show debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3131
1988 : Jim Jordan dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3132

Literary
1816 : Jane Austen declines royal writing advice
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3925

Old West
1877 : Discoverer of Tombstone begins prospecting
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4476

Presidential
1970 : Nixon signs legislation banning cigarette ads on TV and radio
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=481

Sports
1985 : Villanova beats Georgetown for NCAA basketball championship
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57521

Vietnam War
1972 : North Vietnamese launch Nguyen Hue Offensive
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1764

Wall Street
1864 : First travel insurance policy sold
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5805
1992 : House bank abusers listed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5804

World War I
1918 : British Royal Air Force is founded
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=420

World War II
1945 : U.S. troops land on Okinawa
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6366

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[#] Wed Apr 02 2008 06:03:07 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Pope John Paul II Dies

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April 2: General Interest
2005 : Pope John Paul II Dies

On this day in 2005, John Paul II, history's most well-traveled pope
and the first non-Italian to hold the position since the 16th century,
dies at his home in the Vatican. Six days later, two million people
packed Vatican City for his funeral, said to be the biggest funeral in
history.

John Paul II was born Karol Jozef Wojtyla in Wadowice, Poland, 35
miles southwest of Krakow, in 1920. After high school, the future pope
enrolled at Krakow's Jagiellonian University, where he studied
philosophy and literature and performed in a theater group. During
World War II, Nazis occupied Krakow and closed the university, forcing
Wojtyla to seek work in a quarry and, later, a chemical factory. By
1941, his mother, father, and only brother had all died, leaving him
the sole surviving member of his family.

Although Wojtyla had been involved in the church his whole life, it
was not until 1942 that he began seminary training. When the war
ended, he returned to school at Jagiellonian to study theology,
becoming an ordained priest in 1946. He went on to complete two
doctorates and became a professor of moral theology and social ethics.
On July 4, 1958, at the age of 38, he was appointed auxiliary bishop
of Krakow by Pope Pius XII. He later became the city's archbishop,
where he spoke out for religious freedom while the church began the
Second Vatican Council, which would revolutionize Catholicism. He was
made a cardinal in 1967, taking on the challenges of living and
working as a Catholic priest in communist Eastern Europe. Once asked
if he feared retribution from communist leaders, he replied, "I'm not
afraid of them. They are afraid of me."

Wojtyla was quietly and slowly building a reputation as a powerful
preacher and a man of both great intellect and charisma. Still, when
Pope John Paul I died in 1978 after only a 34-day reign, few suspected
Wojtyla would be chosen to replace him. But, after seven rounds of
balloting, the Sacred College of Cardinals chose the 58-year-old, and
he became the first-ever Slavic pope and the youngest to be chosen in
132 years.

A conservative pontiff, John Paul II's papacy was marked by his firm
and unwavering opposition to communism and war, as well as abortion,
contraception, capital punishment, and homosexual sex. He later came
out against euthanasia, human cloning, and stem cell research. He
traveled widely as pope, using the eight languages he spoke (Polish,
Italian, French, German, English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Latin) and
his well-known personal charm, to connect with the Catholic faithful,
as well as many outside the fold.

On May 13, 1981, Pope John Paul II was shot in St. Peter's Square by a
Turkish political extremist, Mehmet Ali Agca. After his release from
the hospital, the pope famously visited his would-be assassin in
prison, where he had begun serving a life sentence, and personally
forgave him for his actions. The next year, another unsuccessful
attempt was made on the pope's life, this time by a fanatical priest
who opposed the reforms of Vatican II.

Although it was not confirmed by the Vatican until 2003, many believe
Pope John Paul II began suffering from Parkinson's disease in the
early 1990s. He began to develop slurred speech and had difficulty
walking, though he continued to keep up a physically demanding travel
schedule. In his final years, he was forced to delegate many of his
official duties, but still found the strength to speak to the faithful
from a window at the Vatican. In February 2005, the pope was
hospitalized with complications from the flu. He died two months
later.

Pope John Paul II is remembered for his successful efforts to end
communism, as well as for building bridges with peoples of other
faiths, and issuing the Catholic Church's first apology for its
actions during World War II. He was succeeded by Joseph Cardinal
Ratzinger, who became Pope Benedict XVI. Benedict XVI began the
process to beatify John Paul II in May 2005.

history.com/tdih.do

Pope John Paul II: Statesman of Faith DVD

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General Interest
2005 : Pope John Paul II Dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=6855
1513 : Ponce de Leon discovers Florida
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4882
1917 : Jeannette Rankin assumes office
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4883
1982 : Argentina invades Falklands
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4884

American Revolution
1777 : Ebenezer Learned is promoted to brigadier general
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=450

Automotive
1926 : Grand Prix racer born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7350
1956 : GM boss steps down
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7348
1987 : Congress allows higher speeds
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7349

Civil War
1863 : Bread riots in Richmond
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2156
1865 : Union captures Petersburg line and General Hill is killed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2155

Cold War
1989 : Gorbachev begins visit to Cuba
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2625

Crime
1992 : Mob boss John Gotti convicted of murder
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57214

Disaster
1979 : Anthrax poisoning kills 62 in Russia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=391

Entertainment
1902 : First movie theater opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3133
1941 : Life of Riley radio show debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3134
1972 : Charles Chaplin returns to U.S.
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3135

Literary
1805 : Hans Christian Andersen is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3926

Old West
1902 : First woman judge dies in Wyoming
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4477

Presidential
1917 : Wilson asks for declaration of war
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=482

Sports
1977 : Red Rum wins record third Grand National
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57522

Vietnam War
1972 : North Vietnamese troops capture part of Quang Tri
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1765
1975 : South Vietnamese evacuation begins at Qui Nhon.
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1766

Wall Street
1792 : Minting the Mint
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5806
1980 : Carter signs Windfall Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5807

World War I
1917 : Woodrow Wilson asks U.S. Congress for declaration of war
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=421

World War II
1941 : "The Desert Fox" recaptures Libya
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6402

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[#] Thu Apr 03 2008 06:02:10 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Pony Express debuts

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

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April 3: General Interest
1860 : Pony Express debuts

On this day in 1860, the first Pony Express mail, traveling by horse
and rider relay teams, simultaneously leaves St. Joseph, Missouri, and
Sacramento, California. Ten days later, on April 13, the westbound
rider and mail packet completed the approximately 1,800-mile journey
and arrived in Sacramento, beating the eastbound packet's arrival in
St. Joseph by two days and setting a new standard for speedy mail
delivery. Although ultimately short-lived and unprofitable, the Pony
Express captivated America's imagination and helped win federal aid
for a more economical overland postal system. It also contributed to
the economy of the towns on its route and served the mail-service
needs of the American West in the days before the telegraph or an
efficient transcontinental railroad.

The Pony Express debuted at a time before radios and telephones, when
California, which achieved statehood in 1850, was still largely cut
off from the eastern part of the country. Letters sent from New York
to the West Coast traveled by ship, which typically took at least a
month, or by stagecoach on the recently established Butterfield
Express overland route, which could take from three weeks to many
months to arrive. Compared to the snail's pace of the existing
delivery methods, the Pony Express' average delivery time of 10 days
seemed like lightning speed.

The Pony Express Company, the brainchild of William H. Russell,
William Bradford Waddell and Alexander Majors, owners of a freight
business, was set up over 150 relay stations along a pioneer trail
across the present-day states of Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming,
Colorado, Utah, Nevada and California. Riders, who were paid
approximately $25 per week and carried loads estimated at up to 20
pounds of mail, were changed every 75 to 100 miles, with horses
switched out every 10 to 15 miles. Among the riders was the legendary
frontiersman and showman William "Buffalo Bill" Cody (1846-1917), who
reportedly signed on with the Pony Express at age 14. The company's
riders set their fastest time with Lincoln's inaugural address, which
was delivered in just less than eight days.

The initial cost of Pony Express delivery was $5 for every half-ounce
of mail. The company began as a private enterprise and its owners
hoped to gain a profitable delivery contract from the U.S. government,
but that never happened. With the advent of the first transcontinental
telegraph line in October 1861, the Pony Express ceased operations.
However, the legend of the lone Pony Express rider galloping across
the Old West frontier to deliver the mail lives on today.

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General Interest
1860 : Pony Express debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=4885
1882 : Jesse James shot in the back
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4886
1936 : Bruno Hauptmann executed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4887
1948 : Truman signs Marshall Plan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4888
1996 : Ron Brown killed in plane crash
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4889
1996 : Unabomber arrested
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6856

American Revolution
1776 : Congress authorizes privateers to attack British vessels
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=451

Automotive
1885 : Daimler receives patent
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7352
1996 : MOMA displays Jaguar
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7351

Civil War
1865 : Richmond captured
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2157

Cold War
1948 : Truman signs Foreign Assistance Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2626

Crime
1882 : Jesse James is murdered
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=961

Disaster
1974 : Series of deadly twisters hits U.S. heartland
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=392

Entertainment
1956 : Elvis appears on the Milton Berle Show
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3137
1988 : Milton Caniff dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3138
1990 : Singer Sarah Vaughan dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3136

Literary
1955 : ACLU says it will contest obscenity of HOWL
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3927

Old West
1817 : Texas Ranger "Big Foot" Wallace born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4478

Sports
1988 : Lemieux wins NHL scoring title, stops Gretzky streak
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57523

Vietnam War
1969 : Nixon administration will "Vietnamize" the war
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1818
1972 : Nixon orders response to North Vietnamese invasion
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1817

Wall Street
1974 : Nixon faces tax inquiry
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5808

World War I
1918 : Ferdinand Foch becomes supreme Allied commander
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=422

World War II
1942 : Japanese launch major offensive against Bataan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6403


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[#] Fri Apr 04 2008 06:02:55 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Dr. King is assassinated

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April 4: General Interest
1968 : Dr. King is assassinated

Just after 6 p.m. on April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. is fatally
shot while standing on the balcony outside his second-story room at
the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. The civil rights leader was
in Memphis to support a sanitation workers' strike and was on his way
to dinner when a bullet struck him in the jaw and severed his spinal
cord. King was pronounced dead after his arrival at a Memphis
hospital. He was 39 years old.

In the months before his assassination, Martin Luther King became
increasingly concerned with the problem of economic inequality in
America. He organized a Poor People's Campaign to focus on the issue,
including an interracial poor people's march on Washington, and in
March 1968 traveled to Memphis in support of poorly treated
African-American sanitation workers. On March 28, a workers' protest
march led by King ended in violence and the death of an
African-American teenager. King left the city but vowed to return in
early April to lead another demonstration.

On April 3, back in Memphis, King gave his last sermon, saying, "We've
got some difficult days ahead. But it really doesn't matter with me
now, because I've been to the mountaintop...And He's allowed me to go
up to the mountain. And I've looked over, and I've seen the Promised
Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight
that we, as a people, will get to the promised land."

One day after speaking those words, Dr. King was shot and killed by a
sniper. As word of the assassination spread, riots broke out in cities
all across the United States and National Guard troops were deployed
in Memphis and Washington, D.C. On April 9, King was laid to rest in
his hometown of Atlanta, Georgia. Tens of thousands of people lined
the streets to pay tribute to King's casket as it passed by in a
wooden farm cart drawn by two mules.

The evening of King's murder, a Remington .30-06 hunting rifle was
found on the sidewalk beside a rooming house one block from the
Lorraine Motel. During the next several weeks, the rifle, eyewitness
reports, and fingerprints on the weapon all implicated a single
suspect: escaped convict James Earl Ray. A two-bit criminal, Ray
escaped a Missouri prison in April 1967 while serving a sentence for a
holdup. In May 1968, a massive manhunt for Ray began. The FBI
eventually determined that he had obtained a Canadian passport under a
false identity, which at the time was relatively easy.

On June 8, Scotland Yard investigators arrested Ray at a London
airport. He was trying to fly to Belgium, with the eventual goal, he
later admitted, of reaching Rhodesia. Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe,
was at the time ruled by an oppressive and internationally condemned
white minority government. Extradited to the United States, Ray stood
before a Memphis judge in March 1969 and pleaded guilty to King's
murder in order to avoid the electric chair. He was sentenced to 99
years in prison.

Three days later, he attempted to withdraw his guilty plea, claiming
he was innocent of King's assassination and had been set up as a patsy
in a larger conspiracy. He claimed that in 1967, a mysterious man
named "Raoul" had approached him and recruited him into a gunrunning
enterprise. On April 4, 1968, he said, he realized that he was to be
the fall guy for the King assassination and fled to Canada. Ray's
motion was denied, as were his dozens of other requests for a trial
during the next 29 years.

During the 1990s, the widow and children of Martin Luther King Jr.
spoke publicly in support of Ray and his claims, calling him innocent
and speculating about an assassination conspiracy involving the U.S.
government and military. U.S. authorities were, in conspiracists'
minds, implicated circumstantially. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover
obsessed over King, who he thought was under communist influence. For
the last six years of his life, King underwent constant wiretapping
and harassment by the FBI. Before his death, Dr. King was also
monitored by U.S. military intelligence, which may have been asked to
watch King after he publicly denounced the Vietnam War in 1967.
Furthermore, by calling for radical economic reforms in 1968,
including guaranteed annual incomes for all, King was making few new
friends in the Cold War-era U.S. government.

Over the years, the assassination has been reexamined by the House
Select Committee on Assassinations, the Shelby County, Tennessee,
district attorney's office, and three times by the U.S. Justice
Department. The investigations all ended with the same conclusion:
James Earl Ray killed Martin Luther King. The House committee
acknowledged that a low-level conspiracy might have existed, involving
one or more accomplices to Ray, but uncovered no evidence to
definitively prove this theory. In addition to the mountain of
evidence against him--such as his fingerprints on the murder weapon
and his admitted presence at the rooming house on April 4--Ray had a
definite motive in assassinating King: hatred. According to his family
and friends, he was an outspoken racist who informed them of his
intent to kill Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He died in 1998.

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General Interest
1968 : Dr. King is assassinated
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=6857
1841 : President Harrison dies after one month in office
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4890
1918 : Second Battle of the Somme ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4891
1949 : NATO established
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4892

American Revolution
1776 : Washington begins march to New York
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=452

Automotive
1944 : Actor/Auto racer is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7353
1996 : Jaguar introduces convertible
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7354

Civil War
1865 : President Lincoln in Richmond
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2158

Cold War
1949 : NATO pact signed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2627

Crime
1968 : Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=962

Disaster
1933 : Dirigible crash kills 73
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=393

Entertainment
1939 : Jack Benny pleads guilty
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3140
1963 : Bye Bye Birdie opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3141
1969 : Smothers Brothers cancelled
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3139

Literary
1928 : Maya Angelou is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3928

Old West
1843 : Yellowstone photographer William Jackson is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4479

Presidential
1841 : Harrison dies of pneumonia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=484
1865 : Lincoln dreams about a presidential assassination
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=485

Sports
1982 : Gretzky finishes season with 212 points
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57524

Vietnam War
1967 : Martin Luther King, Jr., speaks out against the war
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1767
1975 : Operation Baby Lift aircraft crashes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1768

Wall Street
1812 : Madison embargoes Brits
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5809

World War I
1918 : Germans and Allies step up operations near Somme
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=423

World War II
1884 : Yamamoto Isoroku, Japan's mastermind of the Pearl Harbor
attack, is born
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[#] Sat Apr 05 2008 06:03:02 EDT from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Pocahontas marries John Rolfe

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

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April 5: General Interest
1614 : Pocahontas marries John Rolfe

Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan Indian confederacy,
marries English tobacco planter John Rolfe in Jamestown, Virginia. The
marriage ensured peace between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan
Indians for several years.

In May 1607, about 100 English colonists settled along the James River
in Virginia to found Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement
in America. The settlers fared badly because of famine, disease, and
Indian attacks, but were aided by 27-year-old English adventurer John
Smith, who directed survival efforts and mapped the area. While
exploring the Chickahominy River in December 1607, Smith and two
colonists were captured by Powhatan warriors. At the time, the
Powhatan confederacy consisted of around 30 Tidewater-area tribes led
by Chief Wahunsonacock, known as Chief Powhatan to the English.
Smith's companions were killed, but he was spared and released,
(according to a 1624 account by Smith) because of the dramatic
intercession of Pocahontas, Chief Powhatan's 13-year-old daughter. Her
real name was Matoaka, and Pocahontas was a pet name that has been
translated variously as "playful one" and "my favorite daughter."

In 1608, Smith became president of the Jamestown colony, but the
settlement continued to suffer. An accidental fire destroyed much of
the town, and hunger, disease, and Indian attacks continued. During
this time, Pocahontas often came to Jamestown as an emissary of her
father, sometimes bearing gifts of food to help the hard-pressed
settlers. She befriended the settlers and became acquainted with
English ways. In 1609, Smith was injured from a fire in his gunpowder
bag and was forced to return to England.

After Smith's departure, relations with the Powhatan deteriorated and
many settlers died from famine and disease in the winter of 1609-10.
Jamestown was about to be abandoned by its inhabitants when Baron De
La Warr (also known as Delaware) arrived in June 1610 with new
supplies and rebuilt the settlement--the Delaware River and the colony
of Delaware were later named after him. John Rolfe also arrived in
Jamestown in 1610 and two years later cultivated the first tobacco
there, introducing a successful source of livelihood that would have
far-reaching importance for Virginia.

In the spring of 1613, English Captain Samuel Argall took Pocahontas
hostage, hoping to use her to negotiate a permanent peace with her
father. Brought to Jamestown, she was put under the custody of Sir
Thomas Gates, the marshal of Virginia. Gates treated her as a guest
rather than a prisoner and encouraged her to learn English customs.
She converted to Christianity and was baptized Lady Rebecca. Powhatan
eventually agreed to the terms for her release, but by then she had
fallen in love with John Rolfe, who was about 10 years her senior. On
April 5, 1614, Pocahontas and John Rolfe married with the blessing of
Chief Powhatan and the governor of Virginia.

Their marriage brought a peace between the English colonists and the
Powhatans, and in 1615 Pocahontas gave birth to their first child,
Thomas. In 1616, the couple sailed to England. The so-called Indian
Princess proved popular with the English gentry, and she was presented
at the court of King James I. In March 1617, Pocahontas and Rolfe
prepared to sail back to Virginia. However, the day before they were
to leave, Pocahontas died, probably of smallpox, and was buried at the
parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England.

John Rolfe returned to Virginia and was killed in an Indian massacre
in 1622. After an education in England, their son Thomas Rolfe
returned to Virginia and became a prominent citizen. John Smith
returned to the New World in 1614 to explore the New England coast. On
another voyage of exploration in 1614, he was captured by pirates but
escaped after three months of captivity. He then returned to England,
where he died in 1631.

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General Interest
1614 : Pocahontas marries John Rolfe
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=6858
1951 : Rosenbergs sentenced to die
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4893
1955 : Winston Churchill resigns
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4894
1992 : Abortion rights advocates march on Washington
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4895

American Revolution
1774 : Benjamin Franklin publishes "An Open Letter to Lord North"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=453

Automotive
1923 : Firestone produces new tires
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7356
1988 : "Fast Car" is released
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7355

Civil War
1862 : Siege of Yorktown begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2159
1865 : Lee leaves Amelia Court House, Virginia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2160

Cold War
1951 : Rosenbergs sentenced to death for spying
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2628

Crime
1994 : Kurt Cobain commits suicide
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=963

Disaster
1936 : Tornadoes devastate Tupelo and Gainesville
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=394

Entertainment
1931 : Fox drops John Wayne
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3142
1949 : Fireside Theatre starts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3143
1965 : My Fair Lady and Julie Andrews win
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3144

Literary
1859 : Darwin sends first three chapters of The Origin of Species to
his publisher
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3929

Old West
1976 : Howard Hughes dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4480

Presidential
1792 : Washington exercises first presidential veto
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=486

Sports
1984 : Abdul-Jabbar breaks points record
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57525

Vietnam War
1969 : Antiwar demonstrations held across United States
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1776
1972 : North Vietnamese launch second front of Nguyen Hue Offensive
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1775

Wall Street
1894 : Miner strike turns violent in PA
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5810
1956 : Riesel takes on racketeering...and loses
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5811
1976 : "Spruce Goose" flies into the sunset
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5812

World War I
1918 : First stage of German spring offensive ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=424

World War II
1945 : Tito signs "friendship treaty" with Soviet Union
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6405

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