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[#] Wed Dec 12 2007 06:03:31 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Da Vinci notebook sells for over $5 million

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Welcome to the THIS DAY IN HISTORY newsletter
from THE HISTORY CHANNEL

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December 12: General Interest
1980 : Da Vinci notebook sells for over $5 million

On this day in 1980, American oil tycoon Armand Hammer pays $5,126,000
at auction for a notebook containing writings by the legendary artist
Leonardo da Vinci.

The manuscript, written around 1508, was one of some 30 similar books
da Vinci produced during his lifetime on a variety of subjects. It
contained 72 loose pages featuring some 300 notes and detailed
drawings, all relating to the common theme of water and how it moved.
Experts have said that da Vinci drew on it to paint the background of
his masterwork, the Mona Lisa. The text, written in brown ink and
chalk, read from right to left, an example of da Vinci's favored
mirror-writing technique. The painter Giuseppi Ghezzi discovered the
notebook in 1690 in a chest of papers belonging to Guglielmo della
Porto, a 16th-century Milanese sculptor who had studied Leonardo's
work. In 1717, Thomas Coke, the first earl of Leicester, bought the
manuscript and installed it among his impressive collection of art at
his family estate in England.

More than two centuries later, the notebook--by now known as the
Leicester Codex--showed up on the auction block at Christie's in
London when the current Lord Coke was forced to sell it to cover
inheritance taxes on the estate and art collection. In the days before
the sale, art experts and the press speculated that the notebook would
go for $7 to $20 million. In fact, the bidding started at $1.4 million
and lasted less than two minutes, as Hammer and at least two or three
other bidders competed to raise the price $100,000 at a time. The
$5.12 million price tag was the highest ever paid for a manuscript at
that time; a copy of the legendary Gutenberg Bible had gone for only
$2 million in 1978. "I'm very happy with the price. I expected to pay
more," Hammer said later. "There is no work of art in the world I
wanted more than this." Lord Coke, on the other hand, was only
"reasonably happy" with the sale; he claimed the proceeds would not be
sufficient to cover the taxes he owed.

Hammer, the president of Occidental Petroleum Corporation, renamed his
prize the Hammer Codex and added it to his valuable collection of art.
When Hammer died in 1990, he left the notebook and other works to the
Armand Hammer Museum of Art and Cultural Center at the University of
California at Los Angeles (UCLA). Several years later, the museum
offered the manuscript for sale, claiming it was forced to take this
action to cover legal costs incurred when the niece and sole heir of
Hammer's late wife, Frances, sued the estate claiming Hammer had
cheated Frances out of her rightful share of his fortune. On November
11, 1994, the Hammer Codex was sold to an anonymous bidder--soon
identified as Bill Gates, the billionaire founder of Microsoft--at a
New York auction for a new record high price of $30.8 million. Gates
restored the title of Leicester Codex and has since loaned the
manuscript to a number of museums for public display.

history.com/tdih.do

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General Interest
1980 : Da Vinci notebook sells for over $5 million
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52287
1901 : Marconi sends first Atlantic wireless transmission
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7109
1913 : Mona Lisa recovered in Florence
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5593
1917 : Father Flanagan establishes Boys Town
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5594
1937 : USS Panay sunk by Japanese
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5595

American Revolution
1787 : Pennsylvania ratifies the Constitution
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=41

Automotive
1916 : Studebaker digs in
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7853
1955 : Ford Foundation gives away $500 million
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7854

Civil War
1806 : Stand Watie born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2415

Cold War
1987 : Shultz calls on European allies to increase defense spending
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2512

Crime
1989 : The Queen of Mean is sentenced to the slammer
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1217
1997 : A young murderer is indicted
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1216

Disaster
1917 : French soldiers killed in train accident
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52523

Entertainment
1915 : Frank Sinatra born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3845
1968 : Tallulah Bankhead dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3846

Literary
1821 : Flaubert is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4180

Old West
1929 : Cattle pioneer Charles Goodnight dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4365

Presidential
1963 : JFK memorial album sets record for sales
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52465

Vietnam War
1968 : Procedural questions cause difficulty at the peace talks
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1548
1969 : Philippine soldiers depart South Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1547

Wall Street
1805 : Wells Fargo founder is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6324
1900 : U.S. Steel formed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6325
1923 : Bob Barker is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6326

World War I
1914 : Stocks tank as NYSE trading resumes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=11

World War II
1941 : United States seizes French liner Normandie
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6641


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[#] Thu Dec 13 2007 03:39:47 EST from tomwhite @ Uncensored

Subject: Nice Fort

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I was alerted to a great fort to visit on my last vacation.  You can also find some great place in the up state ny area.  I found the information from the www.cewarner.com website.  Tom

[#] Thu Dec 13 2007 06:02:26 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Saddam Hussein captured

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Welcome to the THIS DAY IN HISTORY newsletter
from THE HISTORY CHANNEL

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December 13: General Interest
2003 : Saddam Hussein captured

After spending nine months on the run, former Iraqi dictator Saddam
Hussein is captured on this day in 2003. Saddam's downfall began on
March 20, 2003, when the United States led an invasion force into Iraq
to topple his government, which had controlled the country for more
than 20 years.

Saddam Hussein was born into a poor family in Tikrit, 100 miles
outside of Baghdad, in 1937. After moving to Baghdad as a teenager,
Saddam joined the now-infamous Baath party, which he would later lead.
He participated in several coup attempts, finally helping to install
his cousin as dictator of Iraq in July 1968. Saddam took over for his
cousin 11 years later. During his 24 years in office, Saddam's secret
police, charged with protecting his power, terrorized the public,
ignoring the human rights of the nation's citizens. While many of his
people faced poverty, he lived in incredible luxury, building more
than 20 lavish palaces throughout the country. Obsessed with security,
he is said to have moved among them often, always sleeping in secret
locations.

In the early 1980s, Saddam involved his country in an eight-year war
with Iran, which is estimated to have taken more than a million lives
on both sides. He is alleged to have used nerve agents and mustard gas
on Iranian soldiers during the conflict, as well as chemical weapons
on Iraq's own Kurdish population in northern Iraq in 1988. After he
invaded Kuwait in 1990, a U.S.-led coalition invaded Iraq in 1991,
forcing the dictator's army to leave its smaller neighbor, but failing
to remove Saddam from power. Throughout the 1990s, Saddam faced both
U.N. economic sanctions and air strikes aimed at crippling his ability
to produce chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. With Iraq
continuing to face allegations of illegal oil sales and
weapons-building, the United States again invaded the country in March
2003, this time with the expressed purpose of ousting Saddam and his
regime.

Despite proclaiming in early March 2003 that, "it is without doubt
that the faithful will be victorious against aggression," Saddam went
into hiding soon after the American invasion, speaking to his people
only through an occasional audiotape, and his government soon fell.
After declaring Saddam the most important of a list of his regime's 55
most-wanted members, the United States began an intense search for the
former leader and his closest advisors. On July 22, 2003, Saddam's
sons, Uday and Qusay, who many believe he was grooming to one day fill
his shoes, were killed when U.S. soldiers raided a villa in which they
were staying in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul.

Five months later, on December 13, 2003, U.S. soldiers found Saddam
Hussein hiding in a six-to-eight-foot deep hole, nine miles outside
his hometown of Tikrit. The man once obsessed with hygiene was found
to be unkempt, with a bushy beard and matted hair. He did not resist
and was uninjured during the arrest. A soldier at the scene described
him as "a man resigned to his fate."

Saddam is now in Iraqi custody with U.S. security and faces trial in
front of a special tribunal on several criminal cases pending against
him. The first began in October 2005. On November 5 of the next year,
he was found guilty of crimes against humanity and sentenced to death
by hanging. After an unsuccessful appeal, he was executed on December
30, 2006. Despite a prolonged search, weapons of mass destruction were
never found in Iraq.

history.com/tdih.do

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General Interest
2003 : Saddam Hussein captured
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=7110
1577 : Drake sets out
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5596
1621 : First export of American furs
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5597
1642 : Tasman discovers New Zealand
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5598
1937 : The Rape of Nanking
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5599

American Revolution
1776 : General Charles Lee leaves his troops for Widow White's tavern
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=42

Automotive
1922 : Early convertible top patented
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7856
1939 : Lincoln Continental is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7857
1957 : Thunderbird makes a change
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7855

Civil War
1862 : Battle of Fredericksburg
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2416

Cold War
1951 : John S. Service dismissed from State Department
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2513

Crime
2000 : Texas Seven prison break
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=53089

Disaster
1916 : Soldiers perish in avalanche as World War I rages
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52524

Entertainment
1910 : Metropolitan Opera experimental broadcast
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3848
1928 : An American in Paris debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3847
1950 : James Dean appears in Pepsi ad
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3849

Literary
1915 : Mystery writer Ross Macdonald is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4181

Old West
1798 : Joseph Walker born in Tennessee
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4366

Presidential
1918 : Wilson arrives in France
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52466

Vietnam War
1972 : Peace negotiations in Paris deadlocked
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1549
1974 : North Vietnamese commence attack on Phuoc Long Province
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1550

Wall Street
1816 : First savings bank is chartered
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6328
1978 : First Susan B. Anthony dollar is minted
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6327

World War I
1918 : President Wilson makes first U.S. presidential trip to Europe
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=12

World War II
1942 : Goebbels complains of Italians' treatment of Jews
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6642


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[#] Fri Dec 14 2007 06:02:13 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Amundsen reaches South Pole

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Welcome to the THIS DAY IN HISTORY newsletter
from THE HISTORY CHANNEL

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December 14: General Interest
1911 : Amundsen reaches South Pole

Norwegian Roald Amundsen becomes the first explorer to reach the South
Pole, beating his British rival, Robert Falcon Scott.

Amundsen, born in Borge, near Oslo, in 1872, was one of the great
figures in polar exploration. In 1897, he was first mate on a Belgian
expedition that was the first ever to winter in the Antarctic. In
1903, he guided the 47-ton sloop Gjöa through the Northwest Passage
and around the Canadian coast, the first navigator to accomplish the
treacherous journey. Amundsen planned to be the first man to the North
Pole, and he was about to embark in 1909 when he learned that the
American Robert Peary had achieved the feat.

Amundsen completed his preparations and in June 1910 sailed instead
for Antarctica, where the English explorer Robert F. Scott was also
headed with the aim of reaching the South Pole. In early 1911,
Amundsen sailed his ship into Antarctica's Bay of Whales and set up
base camp 60 miles closer to the pole than Scott. In October, both
explorers set off--Amundsen using sleigh dogs, and Scott employing
Siberian motor sledges, Siberian ponies, and dogs. On December 14,
1911, Amundsen's expedition won the race to the Pole and returned
safely to base camp in late January.

Scott's expedition was less fortunate. The motor sleds broke down, the
ponies had to be shot, and the dog teams were sent back as Scott and
four companions continued on foot. On January 18, 1912, they reached
the pole only to find that Amundsen had preceded them by over a month.
Weather on the return journey was exceptionally bad--two members
perished--and a storm later trapped Scott and the other two survivors
in their tent only 11 miles from their base camp. Scott's frozen body
was found later that year.

After his historic Antarctic journey, Amundsen established a
successful shipping business. He later made attempts to become the
first explorer to fly over the North Pole. In 1925, in an airplane, he
flew within 150 miles of the goal. In 1926, he passed over the North
Pole in a dirigible just three days after American explorer Richard E.
Byrd had apparently done so in an aircraft. In 1996, a diary that Byrd
had kept on the flight was found that seemed to suggest that the he
had turned back 150 miles short of its goal because of an oil leak,
making Amundsen's dirigible expedition the first flight over the North
Pole.

In 1928, Amundsen lost his life while trying to rescue a fellow
explorer whose dirigible had crashed at sea near Spitsbergen, Norway.

history.com/tdih.do

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General Interest
1911 : Amundsen reaches South Pole
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=7111
1799 : George Washington dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5600
1900 : The birth of quantum theory
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5601

American Revolution
1777 : Thomas Conway is named inspector general
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=43

Automotive
1909 : Brick racetrack completed at Indy
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7859
1931 : Rolls-Royce acquires Bentley
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7860
1947 : Stock car racing organized
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7858

Civil War
1863 : Lincoln pardons his sister-in-law
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2417

Cold War
1980 : CIA issues warning about Soviet arms sales to Third World nations
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2514

Crime
1874 : An unsatisfactory end to a kidnapping
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1218

Disaster
1967 : Blizzard ravages Navajo reservation
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52525

Entertainment
1944 : National Velvet opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3850
1993 : Myrna Loy dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3851
1999 : Charles M. Schulz announces retirement
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3852

Literary
1640 : Aphra Behn is baptized
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4182

Old West
1799 : George Washington dies at Mount Vernon
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4367

Presidential
1799 : George Washington dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52467

Vietnam War
1961 : Kennedy announces intent to increase aid to South Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1551
1964 : Operation Barrel Roll begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1552

Wall Street
1790 : Hamilton's plan for Bank of the U.S.
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6330
1995 : Boeing strike ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6329

World War I
1918 : New king renounces Finnish throne
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=13

World War II
1939 : USSR expelled from the League of Nations
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6643

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[#] Sat Dec 15 2007 06:03:05 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens

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Welcome to the THIS DAY IN HISTORY newsletter
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December 15: General Interest
2001 : Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens

On this day in 2001, Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens after a
team of experts spent 11 years and $27 million to fortify the tower
without eliminating its famous lean.

In the 12th century, construction began on the bell tower for the
cathedral of Pisa, a busy trade center on the Arno River in western
Italy, some 50 miles from Florence. While construction was still in
progress, the tower's foundation began to sink into the soft, marshy
ground, causing it to lean to one side. Its builders tried to
compensate for the lean by making the top stories slightly taller on
one side, but the extra masonry required only made the tower sink
further. By the time it was completed in 1360, modern-day engineers
say it was a miracle it didn't fall down completely.

Though the cathedral itself and the adjoining baptistery also leaned
slightly, it was the Torre Pendente di Pisa, or Leaning Tower of Pisa,
that became the city's most famous tourist attraction. By the 20th
century, the 190-foot-high white marble tower leaned a dramatic 15
feet off the perpendicular. In the year before its closing in 1990, 1
million people visited the old tower, climbing its 293 weathered steps
to the top and gazing out over the green Campo dei Miracoli (Field of
Miracles) outside. Fearing it was about to collapse, officials
appointed a group of 14 archeologists, architects and soil experts to
figure out how to take some--but not all--of the famous tilt away.

Though an initial attempt in 1994 almost toppled the tower, engineers
were eventually able to reduce the lean by between 16 and 17 inches by
removing earth from underneath the foundations. When the tower
reopened on December 15, 2001, engineers predicted it would take 300
years to return to its 1990 position. Though entrance to the tower is
now limited to guided tours, hordes of tourists can still be found
outside, striking the classic pose--standing next to the tower
pretending to hold it up--as cameras flash.

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General Interest
2001 : Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52288
1791 : Bill of Rights is finally ratified
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7112
1961 : Architect of the Holocaust sentenced to die
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5602
1973 : Billionaire's kidnapped grandson found in Italy
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5603

American Revolution
1791 : The Bill of Rights becomes law
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=44

Automotive
1941 : Strikes ruled out by labor
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7861
1967 : Bridge collapses during rush hour
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7862

Civil War
1864 : Battle of Nashville, Tennessee
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2418

Cold War
1978 : United States announces that it will recognize communist China
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2515

Crime
1988 : James Brown begins his prison sentence
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1219

Disaster
1999 : Heavy rain leads to mudslides in Venezuela
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52526

Entertainment
1939 : Gone With the Wind premieres in Atlanta
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3854
1966 : Walt Disney dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3853

Literary
1936 : George Orwell delivers the manuscript for The Road to Wigan Pier
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4183

Old West
1890 : Sitting Bull killed by Indian police
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4368

Presidential
1998 : U.S. House of Representatives recommends impeaching Clinton
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52468

Vietnam War
1965 : U.S. bombers strike industrial targets in North Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1554
1969 : Nixon announces additional U.S. troop withdrawals
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1553

Wall Street
1886 : Record day for trading
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6332
1914 : NYSE reopens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6333
1995 : Trading on NYSE hits new mark
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6331

World War I
1915 : British begin evacuation of Gallipoli
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=14

World War II
1945 : MacArthur orders end of Shinto as Japanese state religion
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6644


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[#] Sun Dec 16 2007 16:21:37 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: The Boston Tea Party

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December 16: General Interest
1773 : The Boston Tea Party

In Boston Harbor, a group of Massachusetts colonists disguised as
Mohawk Indians board three British tea ships and dump 342 chests of
tea into the harbor.

The midnight raid, popularly known as the "Boston Tea Party," was in
protest of the British Parliament's Tea Act of 1773, a bill designed
to save the faltering East India Company by greatly lowering its tea
tax and granting it a virtual monopoly on the American tea trade. The
low tax allowed the East India Company to undercut even tea smuggled
into America by Dutch traders, and many colonists viewed the act as
another example of taxation tyranny.

When three tea ships, the Dartmouth, the Eleanor, and the Beaver,
arrived in Boston Harbor, the colonists demanded that the tea be
returned to England. After Massachusetts Governor Thomas Hutchinson
refused, Patriot leader Samuel Adams organized the "tea party" with
about 60 members of the Sons of Liberty, his underground resistance
group. The British tea dumped in Boston Harbor on the night of
December 16 was valued at some $18,000.

Parliament, outraged by the blatant destruction of British property,
enacted the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, in
1774. The Coercive Acts closed Boston to merchant shipping,
established formal British military rule in Massachusetts, made
British officials immune to criminal prosecution in America, and
required colonists to quarter British troops. The colonists
subsequently called the first Continental Congress to consider a
united American resistance to the British.

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General Interest
1773 : The Boston Tea Party
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=5604
1811 : Earthquake rocks the American wilderness
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5605
1920 : Earthquake devastates Gansu province of China
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5606
1944 : Battle of the Bulge begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7113
1971 : Pakistani forces defeated in Bangladesh
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5607

American Revolution
1773 : Sons of Liberty dump British tea
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=45

Automotive
1949 : Swedish carmaker debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7863
1979 : Oil prices climb higher
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7864

Civil War
1863 : Johnston named commander of Army of Tennessee
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2419
1864 : Battle of Nashville concludes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2420

Cold War
1950 : Truman declares state of emergency
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2516

Crime
1989 : A terrorist bomber begins his deadly rampage
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1220

Disaster
1960 : Two airplanes collide over New York City
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52527

Entertainment
1913 : Charles Chaplin starts work at Keystone
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3855
1951 : Dragnet preview
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3856

Literary
1775 : Jane Austen's birthday
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4184

Old West
1826 : Edwards declares the Texas Republic of Fredonia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4369

Presidential
1998 : Clinton orders air attack on Iraq
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52469

Vietnam War
1965 : Westmoreland asks for more troops
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1556
1972 : Kissinger announces that North Vietnamese left negotiations
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1555

Wall Street
1935 : Fire blazes through Merchants' Exchange
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6335
1978 : Cleveland's big debt
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6336
1982 : Operating capacity of factories plummets
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6334
1993 : The Street reacts to NAFTA
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6337

World War I
1914 : Germans bombard English ports of Hartlepool and Scarborough
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=16

World War II
1944 : Battle of the Bulge
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6645


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[#] Sun Dec 16 2007 16:53:13 EST from Freakdog @ Dog Pound BBS II

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

Wow...that came in late.

[#] Mon Dec 17 2007 07:54:42 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: First airplane flies

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December 17: General Interest
1903 : First airplane flies

Near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, Orville and Wilbur Wright make the
first successful flight in history of a self-propelled,
heavier-than-air aircraft. Orville piloted the gasoline-powered,
propeller-driven biplane, which stayed aloft for 12 seconds and
covered 120 feet on its inaugural flight.

Orville and Wilbur Wright grew up in Dayton, Ohio, and developed an
interest in aviation after learning of the glider flights of the
German engineer Otto Lilienthal in the 1890s. Unlike their older
brothers, Orville and Wilbur did not attend college, but they
possessed extraordinary technical ability and a sophisticated approach
to solving problems in mechanical design. They built printing presses
and in 1892 opened a bicycle sales and repair shop. Soon, they were
building their own bicycles, and this experience, combined with
profits from their various businesses, allowed them to pursue actively
their dream of building the world's first airplane.

After exhaustively researching other engineers' efforts to build a
heavier-than-air, controlled aircraft, the Wright brothers wrote the
U.S. Weather Bureau inquiring about a suitable place to conduct glider
tests. They settled on Kitty Hawk, an isolated village on North
Carolina's Outer Banks, which offered steady winds and sand dunes from
which to glide and land softly. Their first glider, tested in 1900,
performed poorly, but a new design, tested in 1901, was more
successful. Later that year, they built a wind tunnel where they
tested nearly 200 wings and airframes of different shapes and designs.
The brothers' systematic experimentations paid off--they flew hundreds
of successful flights in their 1902 glider at Kill Devils Hills near
Kitty Hawk. Their biplane glider featured a steering system, based on
a movable rudder, that solved the problem of controlled flight. They
were now ready for powered flight.

In Dayton, they designed a 12-horsepower internal combustion engine
with the assistance of machinist Charles Taylor and built a new
aircraft to house it. They transported their aircraft in pieces to
Kitty Hawk in the autumn of 1903, assembled it, made a few further
tests, and on December 14 Orville made the first attempt at powered
flight. The engine stalled during take-off and the plane was damaged,
and they spent three days repairing it. Then at 10:35 a.m. on December
17, in front of five witnesses, the aircraft ran down a monorail track
and into the air, staying aloft for 12 seconds and flying 120 feet.
The modern aviation age was born. Three more tests were made that day,
with Wilbur and Orville alternately flying the airplane. Wilbur flew
the last flight, covering 852 feet in 59 seconds.

During the next few years, the Wright brothers further developed their
airplanes but kept a low profile about their successes in order to
secure patents and contracts for their flying machines. By 1905, their
aircraft could perform complex maneuvers and remain aloft for up to 39
minutes at a time. In 1908, they traveled to France and made their
first public flights, arousing widespread public excitement. In 1909,
the U.S. Army's Signal Corps purchased a specially constructed plane,
and the brothers founded the Wright Company to build and market their
aircraft. Wilbur Wright died of typhoid fever in 1912; Orville lived
until 1948.

The historic Wright brothers' aircraft of 1903 is on permanent display
at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.

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General Interest
1903 : First airplane flies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=7114
1944 : U.S. approves end to internment of Japanese Americans
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5608
1975 : "Squeaky" Fromme sentenced to life
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5609
1990 : Aristide wins Haiti's first free election
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5610
1996 : Peruvian rebels seize Japanese ambassador's home
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5611

American Revolution
1777 : France formally recognizes the United States
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=46

Automotive
1963 : Clean Air Act passes Congress
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7866
1979 : Car breaks sound barrier
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7865

Civil War
1862 : Grant expels the Jews from his department
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2421

Cold War
1991 : Yeltsin supporters announce Soviet Union will cease to exist by
New Year's Eve
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2517

Crime
1986 : "Operation Iceman" nabs the culprit
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1221

Disaster
1961 : Circus catches fire in Brazil
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52528

Entertainment
1936 : Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy debut on radio
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3857
1969 : Tiny Tim marries on The Tonight Show
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3858
1977 : Elvis Costello on Saturday Night Live
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3859

Literary
1843 : A Christmas Carol is published
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4185

Old West
1889 : "Silver Dollar" Tabor born in Denver
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4370

Presidential
1862 : Grant expels Jews from Tennessee, Kentucky and Mississippi
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52470

Vietnam War
1971 : Cambodian forces under heavy pressure
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1557

Wall Street
1878 : Gold Exchange shuts down
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6339
1983 : Another round of Reagan tax reform
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6338

World War I
1873 : Ford Madox Ford is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=15

World War II
1941 : Commander at Pearl Harbor canned
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6646


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[#] Tue Dec 18 2007 06:02:22 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Mayflower passengers come ashore at Plymouth Harbor

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December 18: General Interest
1620 : Mayflower passengers come ashore at Plymouth Harbor

On December 18, 1620, passengers on the British ship Mayflower come
ashore at modern-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, to begin their new
settlement, Plymouth Colony.

The famous Mayflower story began in 1606, when a group of
reform-minded Puritans in Nottinghamshire, England, founded their own
church, separate from the state-sanctioned Church of England. Accused
of treason, they were forced to leave the country and settle in the
more tolerant Netherlands. After 12 years of struggling to adapt and
make a decent living, the group sought financial backing from some
London merchants to set up a colony in America. On September 6, 1620,
102 passengers--dubbed Pilgrims by William Bradford, a passenger who
would become the first governor of Plymouth Colony--crowded on the
Mayflower to begin the long, hard journey to a new life in the New
World.

On November 11, 1620, the Mayflower anchored at what is now
Provincetown Harbor, Cape Cod. Before going ashore, 41 male
passengers--heads of families, single men and three male
servants--signed the famous Mayflower Compact, agreeing to submit to a
government chosen by common consent and to obey all laws made for the
good of the colony. Over the next month, several small scouting groups
were sent ashore to collect firewood and scout out a good place to
build a settlement. Around December 10, one of these groups found a
harbor they liked on the western side of Cape Cod Bay. They returned
to the Mayflower to tell the other passengers, but bad weather
prevented them reaching the harbor until December 16. Two days later,
the first group of Pilgrims went ashore.
After exploring the region, the settlers chose a cleared area
previously occupied by members of a local Native American tribe, the
Wampanoag. The tribe had abandoned the village several years earlier,
after an outbreak of European disease. That winter of 1620-21 was
brutal, as the Pilgrims struggled to build their settlement, find food
and ward off sickness. By spring, 50 of the original 102 Mayflower
passengers were dead. The remaining settlers made contact with
returning members of the Wampanoag tribe and in March they signed a
peace treaty with a tribal chief, Massasoit. Aided by the Wampanoag,
especially the English-speaking Squanto, the Pilgrims were able to
plant crops--especially corn and beans--that were vital to their
survival. The Mayflower and its crew left Plymouth to return to
England on April 5, 1621.

Over the next several decades, more and more settlers made the trek
across the Atlantic to Plymouth, which gradually grew into a
prosperous shipbuilding and fishing center. In 1691, Plymouth was
incorporated into the new Massachusetts Bay Association, ending its
history as an independent colony.

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General Interest
1620 : Mayflower passengers come ashore at Plymouth Harbor
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52289
1865 : Slavery abolished in America
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7115
1912 : Piltdown Man discovered
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5612

American Revolution
1777 : States give thanks
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=47

Automotive
1898 : Official land speed record set
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7867
1984 : Chevy Nova debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7868

Civil War
1862 : Battle of Lexington, Tennessee
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2422

Cold War
1972 : Nixon announces start of "Christmas Bombing" of North Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2518

Crime
1878 : The death of Molly-ism
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1222

Disaster
1982 : Power plant burns in Venezuela
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52529

Entertainment
1916 : Betty Grable born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3861
1946 : Steven Spielberg born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3860

Literary
1870 : Short story writer H.H. Munro is born in Burma
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4186

Old West
1888 : Wetherill and Mason discover Mesa Verde
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4371

Presidential
1915 : Woodrow Wilson marries Edith Bolling Galt
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52471

Vietnam War
1972 : Nixon orders the initiation of Operation Linebacker II
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1558

Wall Street
1987 : Boesky is sentenced
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6340

World War I
1916 : Battle of Verdun ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=17

World War II
1941 : Japan invades Hong Kong
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6647


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[#] Wed Dec 19 2007 06:03:33 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: President Clinton impeached

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December 19: General Interest
1998 : President Clinton impeached

After nearly 14 hours of debate, the House of Representatives approves
two articles of impeachment against President Bill Clinton, charging
him with lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing
justice. Clinton, the second president in American history to be
impeached, vowed to finish his term.

In November 1995, Clinton began an affair with Monica Lewinsky, a
21-year-old unpaid intern. Over the course of a year and a half, the
president and Lewinsky had nearly a dozen sexual encounters in the
White House. In April 1996, Lewinsky was transferred to the Pentagon.
That summer, she first confided in Pentagon co-worker Linda Tripp
about her sexual relationship with the president. In 1997, with the
relationship over, Tripp began secretly to record conversations with
Lewinsky, in which Lewinsky gave Tripp details about the affair.

In December, lawyers for Paula Jones, who was suing the president on
sexual harassment charges, subpoenaed Lewinsky. In January 1998,
allegedly under the recommendation of the president, Lewinsky filed an
affidavit in which she denied ever having had a sexual relationship
with him. Five days later, Tripp contacted the office of Kenneth
Starr, the Whitewater independent counsel, to talk about Lewinsky and
the tapes she made of their conversations. Tripp, wired by FBI agents
working with Starr, met with Lewinsky again, and on January 16,
Lewinsky was taken by FBI agents and U.S. attorneys to a hotel room
where she was questioned and offered immunity if she cooperated with
the prosecution. A few days later, the story broke, and Clinton
publicly denied the allegations, saying, "I did not have sexual
relations with that woman, Ms. Lewinsky."

In late July, lawyers for Lewinsky and Starr worked out a
full-immunity agreement covering both Lewinsky and her parents, all of
whom Starr had threatened with prosecution. On August 6, Lewinsky
appeared before the grand jury to begin her testimony, and on August
17 President Clinton testified. Contrary to his testimony in the Paula
Jones sexual-harassment case, President Clinton acknowledged to
prosecutors from the office of the independent counsel that he had had
an extramarital affair with Ms. Lewinsky.

In four hours of closed-door testimony, conducted in the Map Room of
the White House, Clinton spoke live via closed-circuit television to a
grand jury in a nearby federal courthouse. He was the first sitting
president ever to testify before a grand jury investigating his
conduct. That evening, President Clinton also gave a four-minute
televised address to the nation in which he admitted he had engaged in
an inappropriate relationship with Lewinsky. In the brief speech,
which was wrought with legalisms, the word "sex" was never spoken, and
the word "regret" was used only in reference to his admission that he
misled the public and his family.

Less than a month later, on September 9, Kenneth Starr submitted his
report and 18 boxes of supporting documents to the House of
Representatives. Released to the public two days later, the Starr
Report outlined a case for impeaching Clinton on 11 grounds, including
perjury, obstruction of justice, witness-tampering, and abuse of
power, and also provided explicit details of the sexual relationship
between the president and Ms. Lewinsky. On October 8, the House
authorized a wide-ranging impeachment inquiry, and on December 11, the
House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment. On
December 19, the House impeached Clinton.

On January 7, 1999, in a congressional procedure not seen since the
1868 impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson, the trial of
President Clinton got underway in the Senate. As instructed in Article
1 of the U.S. Constitution, the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme
Court (William Rehnquist at this time) was sworn in to preside, and
the senators were sworn in as jurors.

Five weeks later, on February 12, the Senate voted on whether to
remove Clinton from office. The president was acquitted on both
articles of impeachment. The prosecution needed a two-thirds majority
to convict but failed to achieve even a bare majority. Rejecting the
first charge of perjury, 45 Democrats and 10 Republicans voted "not
guilty," and on the charge of obstruction of justice the Senate was
split 50-50. After the trial concluded, President Clinton said he was
"profoundly sorry" for the burden his behavior imposed on Congress and
the American people.

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General Interest
1998 : President Clinton impeached
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=5616
1777 : Continental Army enters winter camp at Valley Forge
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5614
1972 : Last lunar-landing mission ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5615
1984 : Britain agrees to return Hong Kong to China
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7116

American Revolution
1776 : Thomas Paine publishes American Crisis
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=48

Automotive
1924 : Last Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost rolls off the line
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7869
1994 : German under the hood
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7870

Civil War
1817 : James Archer born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2423

Cold War
1986 : Gorbachev releases Sakharov from internal exile
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2519

Crime
1986 : World Series parachutist sentenced
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1223

Disaster
1907 : Pennsylvania miners perish in coal mine explosion
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52530

Entertainment
1915 : Edith Piaf born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3862
1971 : A Clockwork Orange opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3863

Literary
1732 : Poor Richard's Almanack is published
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4187

Old West
1964 : John Ford's Cheyenne Autumn released
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4372

Presidential
1777 : Washington leads troops into winter quarters at Valley Forge
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52472

Vietnam War
1964 : Another bloodless coup topples the government in Saigon
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1560
1972 : North Vietnam condemns Linebacker raids
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1559

Wall Street
1979 : Chrysler gets bailout
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6342
1983 : Greyhound strike settled
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6341

World War I
1915 : Haig becomes commander-in-chief of the British army in France
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=18

World War II
1941 : Hitler takes command of the German army
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6648

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[#] Thu Dec 20 2007 06:03:04 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Elvis Presley is drafted

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December 20: General Interest
1957 : Elvis Presley is drafted

On this day in 1957, while spending the Christmas holidays at
Graceland, his newly purchased Tennessee mansion, rock-and-roll star
Elvis Presley receives his draft notice for the United States Army.

With a suggestive style--one writer called him "Elvis the Pelvis"--a
hit movie, Love Me Tender, and a string of gold records including
"Heartbreak Hotel," "Blue Suede Shoes," "Hound Dog" and "Don't Be
Cruel," Presley had become a national icon, and the world's first bona
fide rock-and-roll star, by the end of 1956. As the Beatles' John
Lennon once famously remarked: "Before Elvis, there was nothing." The
following year, at the peak of his career, Presley received his draft
notice for a two-year stint in the army. Fans sent tens of thousands
of letters to the army asking for him to be spared, but Elvis would
have none of it. He received one deferment--during which he finished
working on his movie King Creole--before being sworn in as an army
private in Memphis on March 24, 1958.

After six months of basic training--including an emergency leave to
see his beloved mother, Gladys, before she died in August
1958--Presley sailed to Europe on the USS General Randall. For the
next 18 months, he served in Company D, 32nd Tank Battalion, 3rd Armor
Corps in Friedberg, Germany, where he attained the rank of sergeant.
For the rest of his service, he shared an off-base residence with his
father, grandmother and some Memphis friends. After working during the
day, Presley returned home at night to host frequent parties and
impromptu jam sessions. At one of these, an army buddy of Presley's
introduced him to 14-year-old Priscilla Beaulieu, whom Elvis would
marry some years later. Meanwhile, Presley's manager, Colonel Tom
Parker, continued to release singles recorded before his departure,
keeping the money rolling in and his most famous client fresh in the
public's mind. Widely praised for not seeking to avoid the draft or
serve domestically, Presley was seen as a model for all young
Americans. After he got his polio shot from an army doctor on national
TV, vaccine rates among the American population shot from 2 percent to
85 percent by the time of his discharge on March 2, 1960.

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General Interest
1957 : Elvis Presley is drafted
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52290
1946 : French crack down on Vietnamese rebels
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7117
1989 : The U.S. invades Panama
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5617
1995 : NATO assumes peacekeeping duties in Bosnia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5618

American Revolution
1783 : Virginia cedes western land to federal government
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=49

Automotive
1892 : Inflatable wheel is patented
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7871
1945 : Tire rationing ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7872

Civil War
1860 : South Carolina secedes from the Union
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2425
1862 : Raid on Holly Springs, Mississippi
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2424

Cold War
1963 : Berlin Wall opened for first time
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2520

Crime
1986 : Man chased to his death in Howard Beach hate-crime
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=53345

Disaster
1987 : Ferry collides with oil tanker near Manila
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52531

Entertainment
1898 : Irene Dunne born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3865
1932 : Al Jolson records "April Showers"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3864

Literary
1579 : John Fletcher is baptized
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4188

Old West
1803 : The French surrender Orleans to the U.S.
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4373

Presidential
1836 : Jackson submits Indian treaty to Congress
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52473

Vietnam War
1960 : National Liberation Front formed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1561
1967 : President Johnson visits Australia, Thailand, and Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1562

Wall Street
1803 : A really big real-estate dal
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6344
1820 : State puts price on bachelorhood
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6345
1968 : Treasury secretary's reign ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6343

World War I
1914 : First Battle of Champagne begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=19

World War II
1941 : Hitler to Halder: No retreat!
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6649


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[#] Fri Dec 21 2007 06:03:38 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Pan Am Flight 103 explodes over Scotland

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December 21: General Interest
1988 : Pan Am Flight 103 explodes over Scotland

On this day in 1988, Pan Am Flight 103 from London to New York
explodes in midair over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 243
passengers and 16 crew members aboard, as well as 11 Lockerbie
residents on the ground. A bomb hidden inside an audio cassette player
detonated in the cargo area when the plane was at an altitude of
31,000 feet. The disaster, which became the subject of Britain's
largest criminal investigation, was believed to be an attack against
the United States. One hundred eighty nine of the victims were
American.

Islamic terrorists were accused of planting the bomb on the plane
while it was at the airport in Frankfurt, Germany. Authorities
suspected the attack was in retaliation for either the 1986 U.S. air
strikes against Libya, in which leader Muammar al-Qaddafi's young
daughter was killed along with dozens of other people, or a 1988
incident, in which the U.S. mistakenly shot down an Iran Air
commercial flight over the Persian Gulf, killing 290 people.

Sixteen days before the explosion over Lockerbie, the U.S. embassy in
Helsinki, Finland, received a call warning that a bomb would be placed
on a Pan Am flight out of Frankfurt. There is controversy over how
seriously the U.S. took the threat and whether travelers should have
been alerted, but officials later said that the connection between the
call and the bomb was coincidental.

In 1991, following a joint investigation by the British authorities
and the F.B.I., Libyan intelligence agents Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi
and Lamen Khalifa Fhimah were indicted for murder; however, Libya
refused to hand over the suspects to the U.S. Finally, in 1999, in an
effort to ease United Nations sanctions against his country, Qaddafi
agreed to turn over the two men to Scotland for trial in the
Netherlands using Scottish law and prosecutors. In early 2001,
al-Megrahi was convicted and sentenced to life in prison and Fhimah
was acquitted.

In 2003, Libya accepted responsibility for the bombing, but didn't
express remorse. The U.N. and U.S. lifted sanctions against Libya and
Libya agreed to pay each victim's family approximately $8 million in
restitution. In 2004, Libya's prime minister said that the deal was
the "price for peace," implying that his country only took
responsibility to get the sanctions lifted, a statement that
infuriated the victims' families. Pan Am Airlines, which went bankrupt
three years after the bombing, sued Libya and later received a $30
million settlement.

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General Interest
1988 : Pan Am Flight 103 explodes over Scotland
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52293
1958 : De Gaulle elected
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7118
1968 : Apollo 8 departs for moon's orbit
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5619
1975 : Carlos the Jackal attacks OPEC headquarters
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5620

American Revolution
1761 : Patriot Robert Barnwell is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=62

Automotive
1937 : Lincoln Tunnel opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7874
1979 : U.S. government rescues Chrysler
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7873

Civil War
1861 : Trent crisis escalates
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2426

Cold War
1991 : Soviet republics proclaim the Commonwealth of Independent States
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2521

Crime
1980 : Sunny von Bulow is found comatose
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1224
1988 : Pan Am Flight 103 explodes over Lockerbie, Scotland
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1225

Disaster
1946 : Earthquake sends tsunami toward Japan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52532

Entertainment
1937 : Jane Fonda born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3867
1937 : Snow White opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3868
1967 : Rolling Stones release a new album
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3866

Literary
1799 : William Wordsworth moves into Dove Cottage
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4189

Old West
1866 : Indians massacre Fetterman and eighty soldiers
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4374

Presidential
1970 : Nixon meets Elvis Presley
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52474

Vietnam War
1969 : Thailand announces plans to withdraw troops
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1563
1972 : Defense Department reports eight B-52s lost during Linebacker II
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1564

Wall Street
1908 : Carnegie speaks out against tariffs
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6347
1988 : Drexel Burnham pleads guilty to securities fraud
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6346

World War I
1915 : Sir William Robertson is appointed chief of the Imperial General Staff
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=20

World War II
1945 : "Old Blood and Guts" dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6650


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[#] Sat Dec 22 2007 06:03:55 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: First gorilla born in captivity

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December 22: General Interest
1956 : First gorilla born in captivity

On this day in 1956, a baby gorilla named Colo enters the world at the
Columbus Zoo in Ohio, becoming the first-ever gorilla born in
captivity. Weighing in at approximately 4 pounds, Colo, a western
lowland gorilla whose name was a combination of Columbus and Ohio, was
the daughter of Millie and Mac, two gorillas captured in French
Cameroon, Africa, who were brought to the Columbus Zoo in 1951. Before
Colo's birth, gorillas found at zoos were caught in the wild, often by
brutal means. In order to capture a gorilla when it was young and
therefore still small enough to handle, hunters frequently had to kill
the gorilla's parents and other family members.

Gorillas are peaceful, intelligent animals, native to Africa, who live
in small groups led by one adult male, known as a silverback. There
are three subspecies of gorilla: western lowland, eastern lowland and
mountain. The subspecies are similar and the majority of gorillas in
captivity are western lowland. Gorillas are vegetarians whose only
natural enemy is the humans who hunt them. On average, a gorilla lives
to 35 years in the wild and 50 years in captivity.

At the time Colo was born, captive gorillas often never learned
parenting skills from their own parents in the wild, so the Columbus
Zoo built her a nursery and she was reared by zookeepers. In the years
since Colo's arrival, zookeepers have developed habitats that simulate
a gorilla's natural environment and many captive-born gorillas are now
raised by their mothers. In situations where this doesn't work, zoos
have created surrogacy programs, in which the infants are briefly
cared for by humans and then handed over to other gorillas to raise.

Colo, who generated enormous public interest and is still alive today,
went on to become a mother, grandmother, and in 1996, a
great-grandmother to Timu, the first surviving infant gorilla
conceived by artificial insemination. Timu gave birth to her first
baby in 2003.

Today, there are approximately 750 gorillas in captivity around the
world and an estimated 100,000 lowland gorillas (and far fewer
mountain gorillas) remaining in the wild. Most zoos are active in
captive breeding programs and have agreed not to buy gorillas born in
the wild. Since Colo's birth, 30 gorillas have been born at the
Columbus Zoo alone.

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General Interest
1956 : First gorilla born in captivity
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52294
1894 : Dreyfus affair begins in France
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5621
1971 : Waldheim elected U.N. secretary-general
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7119
1984 : The Bernhard Goetz subway shooting
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5622
1989 : Romanian government falls
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5623

American Revolution
1775 : Continental Congress creates a Continental Navy
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=50

Automotive
1900 : Mercedes is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7876
1952 : First Corvette is completed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7875

Civil War
1864 : Sherman presents Lincoln with a Christmas gift
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2427

Cold War
1990 : Lech Walesa sworn in as president of Poland
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2522

Crime
1978 : John Wayne Gacy confesses
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1226

Disaster
1939 : Express trains collide in Germany
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52533

Entertainment
1949 : Robin and Maurice Gibb born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3869
1972 : Joni Mitchell goes gold
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3870

Literary
1849 : Dostoevsky reprieved at last minute
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4190

Old West
1884 : John Chisum dies in Arkansas
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4375

Presidential
1968 : Julie Nixon marries David Eisenhower
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52475

Vietnam War
1971 : Soviet Union attacks Chinese policy toward Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1566
1972 : Washington announces Linebacker II raids will continue
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1565

Wall Street
1807 : House passes Embargo Act
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6348
1997 : Coke buys Orangina
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6349

World War I
1917 : Russian-German peace talks begin at Brest-Litovsk
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=21

World War II
1941 : Churchill and Roosevelt discuss war and peace
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6651


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[#] Mon Dec 24 2007 06:54:40 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Soviet tanks roll into Afghanistan

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December 24: General Interest
1979 : Soviet tanks roll into Afghanistan

On December 24, 1979, the Soviet Union invades Afghanistan, under the
pretext of upholding the Soviet-Afghan Friendship Treaty of 1978.


As midnight approached, the Soviets organized a massive military
airlift into Kabul, involving an estimated 280 transport aircraft and
three divisions of almost 8,500 men each. Within a few days, the
Soviets had secured Kabul, deploying a special assault unit against
Tajberg Palace. Elements of the Afghan army loyal to Hafizullah Amin
put up a fierce, but brief resistance.


On December 27, Babrak Karmal, exiled leader of the Parcham faction of
the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), was
installed as Afghanistan's new head of government. And Soviet ground
forces entered Afghanistan from the north.


The Soviets, however, were met with fierce resistance when they
ventured out of their strongholds into the countryside. Resistance
fighters, called mujahidin, saw the Christian or atheist Soviets
controlling Afghanistan as a defilement of Islam as well as of their
traditional culture. Proclaiming a "jihad"(holy war), they gained the
support of the Islamic world.


The mujahidin employed guerrilla tactics against the Soviets. They
would attack or raid quickly, then disappear into the mountains,
causing great destruction without pitched battles. The fighters used
whatever weapons they could grab from the Soviets or were given by the
United States.


The tide of the war turned with the 1987 introduction of U.S.
shoulder-launched anti-aircraft missiles. The Stingers allowed the
mujahidin to shoot down Soviet planes and helicopters on a regular
basis.


New Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev decided it was time to get out.
Demoralized and with no victory in sight, Soviet forces started
withdrawing in 1988. The last Soviet soldier crossed back across the
border on February 15, 1989.


It was the first Soviet military expedition beyond the Eastern bloc
since World War II and marked the end of a period of improving
relations (known as détente) in the Cold War. Subsequently, the SALT
II arms treaty was shelved and the U.S. began to re-arm.

Fifteen thousand Soviet soldiers were killed.


The long-term impact of the invasion and subsequent war was profound.
First, the Soviets never recovered from the public relations and
financial losses, which significantly contributed to the fall of the
Soviet empire in 1991. Secondly, the war created a breeding ground for
terrorism and the rise of Osama bin Laden.

history.com/tdih.do

General Interest
1979 : Soviet tanks roll into Afghanistan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=57341
1814 : War of 1812 ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7121
1851 : Fire ravages Library of Congress
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5626
1865 : KKK founded
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5627

American Revolution
1745 : Benjamin Rush is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52

Automotive
1801 : Steam propels carriage in Cornwall
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7880
1893 : Ford completes first gas engine
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7881
1903 : England issues first license plate
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7882

Civil War
1864 : Bombardment of Fort Fisher begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2429

Cold War
1952 : McCarren-Walter Act goes into effect
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2524

Crime
1994 : Islamic terrorists hijack a French plane
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1228

Disaster
1953 : Volcanic eruption sweeps away train
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52535

Entertainment
1922 : Ava Gardner born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3873
1948 : Perry Como Show debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3874
1953 : Dragnet lands sponsor
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3875

Literary
1881 : Nobel Prize-winning poet Juan Ramon Jimenez is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4192

Old West
1809 : Kit Carson born in Kentucky
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4377

Presidential
1851 : Fire destroys Jefferson library
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52477
1923 : Coolidge lights first national Christmas tree
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52478

Vietnam War
1964 : Viet Cong bomb Brinks Hotel
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1570
1972 : Bob Hope gives his last show in Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1569

Wall Street
1827 : Congress passes "tariff of abominations"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6353
1905 : Howard Hughes is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6352

World War I
1918 : American soldier John Douglas writes home from post-armistice France
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=23

World War II
1942 : French Admiral Jean Darlan is assassinated
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6653

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[#] Tue Dec 25 2007 08:46:31 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: The Christmas Truce

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

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December 25: General Interest
1914 : The Christmas Truce

Just after midnight on Christmas morning, the majority of German
troops engaged in World War I cease firing their guns and artillery
and commence to sing Christmas carols. At certain points along the
eastern and western fronts, the soldiers of Russia, France, and
Britain even heard brass bands joining the Germans in their joyous
singing.

At the first light of dawn, many of the German soldiers emerged from
their trenches and approached the Allied lines across no-man's-land,
calling out "Merry Christmas" in their enemies' native tongues. At
first, the Allied soldiers feared it was a trick, but seeing the
Germans unarmed they climbed out of their trenches and shook hands
with the enemy soldiers. The men exchanged presents of cigarettes and
plum puddings and sang carols and songs. There was even a documented
case of soldiers from opposing sides playing a good-natured game of
soccer.

The so-called Christmas Truce of 1914 came only five months after the
outbreak of war in Europe and was one of the last examples of the
outdated notion of chivalry between enemies in warfare. In 1915, the
bloody conflict of World War I erupted in all its technological fury,
and the concept of another Christmas Truce became unthinkable.

history.com/tdih.do

General Interest
1914 : The Christmas Truce
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=5629
6 BC: Christ is born?
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7122

American Revolution
1776 : Washington crosses the Delaware
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5628

Automotive
1884 : Oldest legal driver dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7884
1985 : Longest battery-powered drive ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7883

Civil War
1862 : Christmas for Union soldier Elisha Hunt Rhodes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2430

Cold War
1991 : Gorbachev resigns as president of the USSR
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2525

Crime
1996 : Young JonBenet Ramsey is murdered
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1229

Disaster
2000 : Christmas party in China turns deadly
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52536

Entertainment
1907 : Cab Calloway born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3877
1938 : Leigh cast as Scarlett
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3876
1995 : Dean Martin dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3878

Literary
1996 : Jimmy Buffett departs on a cruise that inspires A Pirate Looks at Fifty
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4193

Old West
1869 : John Wesley Hardin kills over a card game
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4378

Presidential
1776 : Washington leads troops on raid at Trenton, New Jersey
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52479

Vietnam War
1966 : Harrison Salisbury reports on damage caused by U.S. bombing
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1572
1972 : Linebacker II resumes after Christmas pause
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1571

Wall Street
1992 : A good shopping season ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6354

World War I
1914 : Enemies exchange Christmas greetings
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=24

World War II
1941 : British surrender Hong Kong
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6654

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[#] Wed Dec 26 2007 06:04:24 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Bugsy Siegel opens Flamingo Hotel

[Reply] [ReplyQuoted] [Headers] [Print]

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from THE HISTORY CHANNEL

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December 26: General Interest
1946 : Bugsy Siegel opens Flamingo Hotel

On December 26, 1946, in Las Vegas, Nevada, mobster Benjamin "Bugsy"
Siegel opens The Pink Flamingo Hotel & Casino at a total cost of $6
million. The 40-acre facility wasn't complete and Siegel was hoping to
raise some revenue with the grand opening.


Well-known singer and comedian Jimmy Durante headlined the
entertainment, with music by Cuban band leader Xavier Cugat. Some of
Siegel's Hollywood friends, including actors George Raft, George
Sanders, Sonny Tufts and George Jessel were in attendance.


The grand opening, however, was a flop. Bad weather kept many other
Hollywood guests from arriving. And because gamblers had no rooms at
the hotel, they took their winnings and gambled elsewhere. The casino
lost $300,000 in the first week of operation.


Siegel and his New York "partners" had invested $1 million in a
property already under construction by Billy Wilkerson, owner of the
Hollywood Reporter as well as some very popular nightclubs in the
Sunset Strip. Wilkerson had wanted to recreate the Sunset Strip in Las
Vegas, with a European style hotel with luxuious rooms, a spa, health
club, showroom, golf course, nightclub and upscale restaurant. But he
soon ran out of money due to the high cost of materials immediately
after the war.


Siegel, who held a largest interest in the racing publication Trans
America Wire, was drawn to Las Vegas in 1945 by his interest in
legalized gambling and off-track betting. He purchased The El Cortez
hotel for $600,000 and later sold it for a $166,000 profit.


Siegel and his organized crime buddies used the profits to influence
Wilkerson to accept new partners. Siegel took over the project and
supervised the building, naming it after his girlfriend Virginia Hill,
whose nickname was "The Flamingo" because of her red hair and long
legs.


Two weeks after the grand opening, the Flamingo closed down. It
re-opened March 1, 1947, as The Fabulous Flamingo. Siegel forced
Wilkerson out in April, and by May, the resort reported a profit, but
it wasn't enough to save Siegel.


Convinced that Siegel wasn't giving them a "square count," it is
widely believed that his partners in organized crime had him killed
while he was reading the paper June 20, 1947, at Hill's Beverly Hills
mansion. Hill was in Paris, having flown the coop after a fight with
Siegel 10 days prior. The crime remains unsolved to this day.


Surviving a series of name and ownership changes, the hotel is known
today as The Flamingo Las Vegas, owned and operated by Harrah's
Entertainment. The property offers 3,626 hotel rooms and a
77,000-square-foot casino.

history.com/tdih.do

New Year's Sale/ Best Sellers of 2007
store.aetv.com/html/referer_entry.jhtml?vid=THC_Email_TDIH&dest=/html/home/index.jhtml

General Interest
1946 : Bugsy Siegel opens Flamingo Hotel
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=57342
1908 : Jack Johnson wins heavyweight title
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5630
1941 : Churchill addresses Congress
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5631
1966 : The first Kwanzaa
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5632
2004 : Tsunami wreaks havoc on Southeast Asia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7123

American Revolution
1776 : Washington wins first major U.S. victory at Trenton
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=54

Automotive
1926 : First overland journey across Africa ends
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7886
1933 : Nissan is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7887
1985 : Ford turns things around
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7885

Civil War
1861 : Mason and Slidell freed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2431

Cold War
1955 : Porgy and Bess opens in Leningrad
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2526

Crime
1610 : Bathory's torturous escapades are exposed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1230

Disaster
2004 : Tsunami devastates Indian Ocean coast
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52537

Entertainment
1974 : Jack Benny dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3879
2000 : Jason Robards dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3880

Literary
1606 : King Lear performed at Court
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4194

Old West
1820 : Moses Austin asks Spanish for Texas colony
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4379

Presidential
1972 : Truman dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52480

Vietnam War
1967 : Laos says communists launched an offensive
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1574
1971 : U.S. jets strike North Vietnam
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1573

Wall Street
1833 : Clay speaks out in favor of Bank of the U.S.
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6355

World War I
1917 : U.S. government takes over control of nation's railroads
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=25

World War II
1943 : Britain surprises German attacker in the Arctic
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6655
1944 : Patton relieves Bastogne
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6656

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[#] Thu Dec 27 2007 06:02:18 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: Radio City Music Hall opens

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December 27: General Interest
1932 : Radio City Music Hall opens

At the height of the Great Depression, thousands turn out for the
opening of Radio City Music Hall, a magnificent Art Deco theater in
New York City. Radio City Music Hall was designed as a palace for the
people, a place of beauty where ordinary people could see high-quality
entertainment. Since its 1932 opening, more than 300 million people
have gone to Radio City to enjoy movies, stage shows, concerts, and
special events.

Radio City Music Hall was the brainchild of the billionaire John D.
Rockefeller, Jr., who decided to make the theater the cornerstone of
the Rockefeller Complex he was building in a formerly derelict
neighborhood in midtown Manhattan. The theater was built in
partnership with the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and designed
by Donald Deskey. The result was an Art Deco masterpiece of elegance
and grace constructed out of a diverse variety of materials, including
aluminum, gold foil, marble, permatex, glass, and cork. Geometric
ornamentation is found throughout the theater, as is Deskey's central
theme of the "Progress of Man." The famous Great Stage, measuring 60
feet wide and 100 feet long, resembles a setting sun. Its
sophisticated system of hydraulic-powered elevators allowed
spectacular effects in staging, and many of its original mechanisms
are still in use today.

In its first four decades, Radio City Music Hall alternated as a
first-run movie theater and a site for gala stage shows. More than 700
films have premiered at Radio City Music Hall since 1933. In the late
1970s, the theater changed its format and began staging concerts by
popular music artists. The Radio City Music Hall Christmas
Spectacular, which debuted in 1933, draws more than a million people
annually. The show features the high-kicking Rockettes, a precision
dance troupe that has been a staple at Radio City since the 1930s.

In 1999, the Hall underwent a seven-month, $70 million restoration.
Today, Radio City Music Hall remains the largest indoor theater in the
world.

history.com/tdih.do

New Year's Sale/ Best Sellers of 2007
store.aetv.com/html/referer_entry.jhtml?vid=THC_Email_TDIH&dest=/html/home/index.jhtml

General Interest
1932 : Radio City Music Hall opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=7124
1831 : HMS Beagle departs England
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5633
1968 : Apollo 8 returns to Earth
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5634
1978 : Spanish king ratifies democratic constitution
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5635

American Revolution
1780 : Americans raid Hammonds Store
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=55

Automotive
1941 : U.S. begins rubber rationing
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7889
1943 : Auto engineer and inventor dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7890
1951 : Postal Service puts Crosley into action
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7888

Civil War
1864 : Hood's army crosses the Tennessee River
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2432

Cold War
1979 : Soviets take over in Afghanistan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2527

Crime
1900 : Carry Nation smashes bar
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1231

Disaster
1975 : Coal mine explodes in India
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52538

Entertainment
1927 : Show Boat opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3881
1932 : Radio City Music Hall opens
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3882
1939 : The Glen Miller Show debuts
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3883

Literary
1904 : Peter Pan, by James Barrie, opens in London
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4195

Old West
1846 : Doniphan's Thousand takes El Paso
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4380

Presidential
1944 : FDR seizes control of Montgomery Ward
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52481

Vietnam War
1966 : U.S. and South Vietnamese troops attack Viet Cong stronghold
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1575
1969 : U.S. and North Vietnamese forces battle near Loc Ninh.
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1576

Wall Street
1943 : FDR helps to avert rail strike
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6356
1983 : Recession takes toll on steel industry
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6357

World War I
1918 : Poles take up arms against German troops in Poznan
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=61

World War II
1942 : Germans form the Smolensk Committee to enlist Soviet soldiers
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6657

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[#] Fri Dec 28 2007 06:02:51 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: First commercial movie screened

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Welcome to the THIS DAY IN HISTORY newsletter
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December 28: General Interest
1895 : First commercial movie screened

On this day in 1895, the world's first commercial movie screening
takes place at the Grand Cafe in Paris. The film was made by Louis and
Auguste Lumiere, two French brothers who developed a camera-projector
called the Cinematographe. The Lumiere brothers unveiled their
invention to the public in March 1895 with a brief film showing
workers leaving the Lumiere factory. On December 28, the
entrepreneurial siblings screened a series of short scenes from
everyday French life and charged admission for the first time.

Movie technology has its roots in the early 1830s, when Joseph Plateau
of Belgium and Simon Stampfer of Austria simultaneously developed a
device called the phenakistoscope, which incorporated a spinning disc
with slots through which a series of drawings could be viewed,
creating the effect of a single moving image. The phenakistoscope,
considered the precursor of modern motion pictures, was followed by
decades of advances and in 1890, Thomas Edison and his assistant
William Dickson developed the first motion-picture camera, called the
Kinetograph. The next year, 1891, Edison invented the Kinetoscope, a
machine with a peephole viewer that allowed one person to watch a
strip of film as it moved past a light.

In 1894, Antoine Lumiere, the father of Auguste (1862-1954) and Louis
(1864-1948), saw a demonstration of Edison's Kinetoscope. The elder
Lumiere was impressed, but reportedly told his sons, who ran a
successful photographic plate factory in Lyon, France, that they could
come up with something better. Louis Lumiere's Cinematographe, which
was patented in 1895, was a combination movie camera and projector
that could display moving images on a screen for an audience. The
Cinematographe was also smaller, lighter and used less film than
Edison's technology.

The Lumieres opened theaters (known as cinemas) in 1896 to show their
work and sent crews of cameramen around the world to screen films and
shoot new material. In America, the film industry quickly took off. In
1896, Vitascope Hall, believed to be the first theater in the U.S.
devoted to showing movies, opened in New Orleans. In 1909, The New
York Times published its first film review (of D.W. Griffith's "Pippa
Passes"), in 1911 the first Hollywood film studio opened and in 1914,
Charlie Chaplin made his big-screen debut.

In addition to the Cinematographe, the Lumieres also developed the
first practical color photography process, the Autochrome plate, which
debuted in 1907.

history.com/tdih.do

New Year's Sale/ Best Sellers of 2007
store.aetv.com/html/referer_entry.jhtml?vid=THC_Email_TDIH&dest=/html/home/index.jhtml

General Interest
1895 : First commercial movie screened
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=5636
1832 : Calhoun resigns vice presidency
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5637
1869 : America's first Labor Day
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5638
1908 : Worst European earthquake
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7125
1989 : Dubcek returns to public office
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5639

American Revolution
1781 : British post troops on John's Island
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=56

Automotive
1954 : Hudson collaborates with Nash
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7891
1957 : Volkswagen reaches milestone
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7892

Civil War
1822 : William Booth Taliaferro born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2433

Cold War
1973 : Solzhenitsyn's The Gulag Archipelago published
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2528

Crime
1793 : An American hero is arrested in France
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1232

Disaster
1908 : Earthquake rocks Sicily
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52539

Entertainment
1895 : First commercial film screened
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3885
1947 : Wynonie Harris records "Good Rockin' Tonight"
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3884

Literary
1932 : Argentine novelist Manuel Puig is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4196

Old West
1900 : Carry Nation attacks a Kansas saloon
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4381

Presidential
1856 : Woodrow Wilson born in Staunton, Virginia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52482

Vietnam War
1964 : South Vietnamese win costly battle at Binh Gia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1578
1972 : Hanoi announces return to the Paris peace talks
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1577

Wall Street
1929 : Top UAW official is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6358
1990 : Year ends badly for U.S. economy
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6359

World War I
1856 : Woodrow Wilson is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=26

World War II
1941 : Request made for creation of construction battalions
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6658

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[#] Sat Dec 29 2007 06:01:41 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: U.S. Army massacres Indians at Wounded Knee

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December 29: General Interest
1890 : U.S. Army massacres Indians at Wounded Knee

On this day in 1890, in the final chapter of America's long Indian
wars, the U.S. Cavalry kills 146 Sioux at Wounded Knee on the Pine
Ridge reservation in South Dakota.

Throughout 1890, the U.S. government worried about the increasing
influence at Pine Ridge of the Ghost Dance spiritual movement, which
taught that Indians had been defeated and confined to reservations
because they had angered the gods by abandoning their traditional
customs. Many Sioux believed that if they practiced the Ghost Dance
and rejected the ways of the white man, the gods would create the
world anew and destroy all non-believers, including non-Indians. On
December 15, 1890, reservation police tried to arrest Sitting Bull,
the famous Sioux chief, who they mistakenly believed was a Ghost
Dancer, and killed him in the process, increasing the tensions at Pine
Ridge.

On December 29, the U.S. Army's 7th cavalry surrounded a band of Ghost
Dancers under the Sioux Chief Big Foot near Wounded Knee Creek and
demanded they surrender their weapons. As that was happening, a fight
broke out between an Indian and a U.S. soldier and a shot was fired,
although it's unclear from which side. A brutal massacre followed, in
which it's estimated almost 150 Indians were killed (some historians
put this number at twice as high), nearly half of them women and
children. The cavalry lost 25 men.

The conflict at Wounded Knee was originally referred to as a battle,
but in reality it was a tragic and avoidable massacre. Surrounded by
heavily armed troops, it's unlikely that Big Foot's band would have
intentionally started a fight. Some historians speculate that the
soldiers of the 7th Cavalry were deliberately taking revenge for the
regiment's defeat at Little Bighorn in 1876. Whatever the motives, the
massacre ended the Ghost Dance movement and was the last major
confrontation in America's deadly war against the Plains Indians.

Conflict came to Wounded Knee again in February 1973 when it was the
site of a 71-day occupation by the activist group AIM (American Indian
Movement) and its supporters, who were protesting the U.S.
government's mistreatment of Native Americans. During the standoff,
two Indians were killed, one federal marshal was seriously wounded and
numerous people were arrested.

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General Interest
1890 : U.S. Army massacres Indians at Wounded Knee
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=52295
1170 : The making of an English martyr
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5640
1845 : Texas enters the Union
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5641
1940 : Worst air raid on London
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7126

American Revolution
1778 : British capture Savannah, Georgia
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=57

Automotive
1800 : Charles Goodyear is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7893
1908 : Cars start stopping faster
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7894
1983 : Terminator terminates Jeep
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7895
1989 : Slater gets caught
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7896

Civil War
1862 : Battle of Chickasaw Bluffs
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2434

Cold War
1956 : United States prepares new strategic plan for Middle East
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2529

Crime
1985 : The "Railway Rapist" commits his first murder
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1233

Disaster
1876 : Bridge collapses in Ohio
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52540

Entertainment
1913 : The Squaw Man filming begins
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3887
1936 : Mary Tyler Moore born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3888
1967 : Paul Whiteman dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3886

Literary
1916 : Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is published
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4197

Old West
1890 : U.S. Army massacres Sioux at Wounded Knee
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4382

Presidential
1808 : Andrew Johnson is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52483

Vietnam War
1962 : Saigon announces success of strategic hamlet program
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1580
1966 : Johnson Administration responds to Harrison Salisbury's charges
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1579

Wall Street
1845 : Texas starts paying taxes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6361
1950 : Celler-Kefauver anti-merger act passes
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6360

World War I
1915 : French government gives land for British war cemeteries
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=27

World War II
1940 : Germans raid London
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6659

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[#] Sun Dec 30 2007 06:02:53 EST from "History.com" <thc-tdih@newsletters.aetv.com> to room_history@dogpound2.citadel.org

Subject: This Day In History: USSR established

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December 30: General Interest
1922 : USSR established

In post-revolutionary Russia, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR) is established, comprising a confederation of Russia,
Belorussia, Ukraine, and the Transcaucasian Federation (divided in
1936 into the Georgian, Azerbaijan, and Armenian republics). Also
known as the Soviet Union, the new communist state was the successor
to the Russian Empire and the first country in the world to be based
on Marxist socialism.

During the Russian Revolution of 1917 and subsequent three-year
Russian Civil War, the Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin dominated
the soviet forces, a coalition of workers' and soldiers' committees
that called for the establishment of a socialist state in the former
Russian Empire. In the USSR, all levels of government were controlled
by the Communist Party, and the party's politburo, with its
increasingly powerful general secretary, effectively ruled the
country. Soviet industry was owned and managed by the state, and
agricultural land was divided into state-run collective farms.

In the decades after it was established, the Russian-dominated Soviet
Union grew into one of the world's most powerful and influential
states and eventually encompassed 15 republics--Russia, Ukraine,
Georgia, Belorussia, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Latvia, Lithuania, and
Estonia. In 1991, the Soviet Union was dissolved following the
collapse of its communist government.

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General Interest
1922 : USSR established
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihVideoCategory&id=5644
1853 : Southern U.S. border established
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5642
1916 : Rasputin murdered
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5643
1965 : Marcos inaugurated
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7127

American Revolution
1803 : Francis Lewis dies
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=58

Automotive
1905 : Frenchman sets record
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7897
1936 : General Motors strike idles thousands
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=7898

Civil War
1862 : U.S.S. Monitor sinks
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2435

Cold War
1950 : Acheson calls for renewed effort to meet communist threat
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=2530

Crime
1994 : An anti-abortion activist goes on a murder spree
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1234

Disaster
1903 : Fire breaks out in Chicago theater
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52541

Entertainment
1959 : Tracey Ullman born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3890
1985 : Rick Nelson dies in plane crash
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=3889

Literary
1816 : Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin wed
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4198

Old West
1905 : Former Idaho governor Steunenberg assassinated
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4383

Presidential
1852 : Rutherford B. Hayes marries Lucy Webb
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=52484

Vietnam War
1970 : U.S. Navy transfers some responsibility to South Vietnamese
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1582
1972 : Negotiations to resume in Paris
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1581

Wall Street
1936 : GM workers strike
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6362
1969 : Nixon signs off on tax reform
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6363

World War I
1916 : Rasputin is murdered
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=28

World War II
1884 : Tojo is born
history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=6660

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